Agrarian Reform in Kyrgyzstan

Stages of Development of the Eurasian Economic Union: Lessons and Prospects

Molchanova Natalia P., Kokov Alikhan M.
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The relevance of the research topic is due to the controversial nature of the formation of international regional integration in the Eurasian space. The purpose of the study is to examine in historical retrospect the patterns of formation of the EAEU, identify priority directions for its development and activities to overcome the challenges facing member countries. The object of the study is a set of relations, during the formation of which various aspects of productive interstate cooperation arose and developed in the space of the former USSR: political, economic, cultural. The subject of the study is the prerequisites, principles and mechanisms of international regional integration in the Eurasian space in the context of global political processes (using the example of the EAEU). The chronological scope of the study covers the period from 1994 to the present. The work uses general scientific approaches (dialectical, historical, civilizational), methods of expert assessments, comparative and content analysis. When justifying the feasibility of using reliable legal conditions for activity, the principles of mutual trust and participation of the parties, as well as recognition of the national interests of partner countries, a special terminology was used. The presented topic requires further research due to the fact that the evolutionary developing international relations considered in the economic space of the EAEU are closely intertwined with the dynamically changing geopolitical situation, as a result of which their constant study is required on the basis of systemic analysis.
Key words: regional integration union, international relations, continental Eurasian partnership, geopolitics, friendly countries, macroeconomics.

Main Trends of Modern International Economic Relations in Conditions of Recession of the World Economic Order

Vasilyeva Nina I., Musieva Jamilya M.
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Today, it is natural to state the primary stage of the process of transformation of international economic relations in conditions of extreme aggravation of political and socio-economic relations. However, in the expert community there is no consensus on the essence of the transformation, its direction, goals and possible results. It is especially difficult to understand this issue in the context of the upcoming Russian Presidential elections in March 2024. Sociological services have noted in recent years an increase in anxiety among voters in the face of an uncertain future: first due to the coronavirus pandemic, then by the onset of the SMO, and since this autumn the Nagorno-Karabakh and Arab-Israeli conflicts . In the context of the post-pandemic recovery of the global economy, with its consequences essentially calling into question the use of the word “global,” the exacerbation of geopolitical tensions leads to an increase in the already observed fragmentation or deglobalization.
In view of this, the current conditions require careful reflection and the search for balanced solutions. Pessimistic forecasts for the growth of the world economy, given by international economic organizations and independent analytical agencies, are determined by a combination of factors, including a fall in consumer demand, inflation, an increase in government debt, etc. The processes of stagnation will be long-term and will lead to a fundamental transformation of the global financial and economic system. The transformation of the world political order simultaneously leads to changes in the system of international economic relations, creating fundamentally new realities leading to increased competition and contradictions between different states in various areas, the consequences of which have yet to be observed and analyzed.
Key words: dynamics of world economic development, deglobalization, multipolar order, global economic stagnation, economic sovereignty.

Evolution of India’s Political Elite in the British Raj Era and Post-colonial Period

Kornienko Olga Yu., Radionova Ekaterina A.
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Abstract. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze specific features of Indian political elites, taking into account peculiarities of Indian cultural and religious identity as well as the impact of the colonial past. Indian elites are now at the focus of academic interest mainly due to a new role of India in global environment. In fact, the changes in the role and status of Indian elites are usually traced to its colonial past when Indian princes played an important role in the political system of the region and ruled about 600 principalities. This research focuses on ways to assess the effectiveness of the British approach of indirect rule in India and to understand the way the Indian elite was integrated into the system of the British Crown. This article met these twin research aims through an extensive study of relevant literature and implementation of historical and institutional analyses, biographical analysis of India’s political elite is also engaged to understand their motives, values, and strategies.
The research produces a number of key fundings: it has confirmed the significant role of Hinduism, the caste system and the experience of the colonial past in shaping India’s modern political elite. Hinduism has retained its unifying religious and ideological influence on the identity and political role of the country. The caste system has created a distinctive style of political struggle and leadership based on dynasticism of the political elite. The colonial past has given India a new start thanks to its involvement into democratic realities of the modern world. The main conclusions drawn from the research are that modern Indian political elite has been formed on the cultural roots of Hinduism, still remains sensitive to the interests of various castes and is committed to national development based on the experiences and lessons of the colonial past.
Key words: indirect rule, British India, political elite, princely families, dynasticism, Hinduism, caste system, colonialism.

China’s Environmental Policy and Soft Power Potential

Matevosyan Anna Torgomovna
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The purpose of this article is to identify an interdependence between environmental policy and expansion of international influence, “soft power” of state. The evolution of the environmental agenda that led to the change of Beijing’s role in global politics has been analyzed.
The article examines China’s cooperation with the island countries of the Indo-Pacific region. Climate challenges faced to these countries facilitated the development of cooperation with Beijing. Chinese leaders offered support to overcome the consequences of climate change. The United States that had played a key role in supporting the island states in the fight against climate change temporarily withdrew from the Asia-Pacific Region during the Trump administration. This led to China’s position strengthening among the countries of the region. Beijing has succeeded in expanding its “soft influence” in a strategically important region for China through international eco-projects and active participation in addressing global problems.
The China’s case research reveals an interdependence between the development of the country’s environmental policy, international cooperation and the strengthening of the “soft power”. It’s forecast that China will strengthen its position among the Asia-Pacific countries and developing countries as a leader in environmental protection issues.
The article suggests that developing countries will further be engaging in the environmental agenda including India. Thus, the prospects for the use of eco-diplomacy as a strategic tool for achieving foreign policy goals and expanding “soft influence” is being underlined.
Key words: “soft power”, environmental policy, eco-diplomacy, global problems, climate change, China, Beijing, Indo-Pacific region.

The Study of Cultural Diplomacy as Part of the Cultural Strategies of the People’s Republic of China: Approaches of Various Experts

Romanova Ekaterina A.
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In the 21st century, culture is becoming a more important component in international relations, where cultural diplomacy is gradually turning into the most effective method of fighting in the international space. The aim of the work is to analyze the methodology, approaches and research of China’s cultural diplomacy by both European and Chinese experts. The main sources of information were the materials of Chinese and European researchers. Among them, attention was drawn to scientific monographs and articles by leading researchers in China and Europe. Historical and comparative analysis of available information is applied. States, individual regions are striving to implement various types of cultural exchange events, the level of which has reached an unprecedented level over the past ten years. In this regard, there are various methods and approaches to studying the cultural diplomacy of the PRC. Depending on the tasks set within the historical period, there are differences in the achieved scientific results. At present, profound changes are taking place in the world, culture is increasingly becoming an important factor in international competition, and the status and role of cultural diplomacy in the country’s foreign policy agenda are becoming increasingly important. The cultural policy of “soft power” carried out by the Chinese government in the process of intercultural exchanges is becoming an increasingly obvious tool for demonstrating China’s state power, and the development of cultural strategies that would mitigate the negative effects of globalization and the protection of traditional national culture have become the most important tasks in the strategic series of cultural development. China in the 21st century.
Key words: globalization, diplomacy, China, cultural diplomacy, methodology, cultural strategies, cultural exchange, new era.

“Technological Level”: Towards Operational Certainty of the Concept

Shorkin Aleksey D.
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The concept of “a level of technology” is recognized as the most important factor in the development of world-systems. Its widespread use contrasts paradoxically with the lack of generally accepted operational certainty. The purpose of the article is to construct an algorithm for the empirical quantification of technological levels.
Numerous attempts to create a system of technology level indicators have not led to easy-to-use results. Researchers of world dynamics prefer to consider the complex multiplicity of indicators using its individual evaluation markers. The level of technology is primarily produced by inventive activity. Its definition by considering the accumulation of the number of inventions has developed in the traditions of the Russian scientific community. This article develops this tradition. For the purposes of rigorous empirical quantification of the level, evaluation procedures were eliminated, and WIPO statistical data were used.
The accumulation of inventions and the growth of World per capita GDP show a high correlation. They are proportionally related by the coefficient of financial and economic productivity (h), the numerical value of which is $185±10 (according to PPP, 1990). A million inventions constitute a unit of technology level. By 1883, the technological level reached 5.25±0.28. Under normal economic development g = 1851±ω ∙ T, where ω ≤ 0.01. In pre-crisis times, ω drops to –0.05.
Two approbations of the author’s model are presented. In the first one, the correlation of the growth of the level of technology with the dynamics of the population is established, an approximation of the logistics of filling the demographic capacity of the modern technological platform is constructed. The second approbation establishes the correspondence of the value of the coefficient h, equal to the minimum World per capita GDP, with the diet of the archanthropus.
Hopefully, a simple operational interpretation of the technological level with help of the accumulated inventions (license counting) that is taken as an independent variable will expand the possibilities of building models of world dynamics.
Key words: level of technology, license for an invention, demographic capacity of a technological platform, diet of an archanthropus.

Reflections and Comments

Agrarian Reform in Kyrgyzstan

Bekbolot Talgarbekov
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Abstract: At the time of the declaration of independence of the state, Kyrgyzstan was in a difficult socio-economic and environmental situation, which led to a decrease in agricultural productivity. This situation is due to the fact that the collapse of the union caused a rupture in relations between the republicans, as a result of which the material and technical problems of the village were eliminated, which was absolutely necessary for the normal reproduction of food.
Key words: agrarian reform, Kyrgyzstan, USSR

Transformation of the Global World Order in Conditions of International Instability: Open World and Synergy of Civilizations

Smakotina N.L., Volkov A.V.
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This article shows the consideration of modern challenges and changes in the world order with an emphasis on the transition to a new polycentric world of regions. It argues that the global system is undergoing a radical transformation, and outlines the characteristics, global trends, and tendencies in shaping the new world order. In order to determine the nature of contradictory factors influencing the global order, the article explores global trends in world politics within the context of globalization and its recent changes. Special attention is given to identifying the global trajectories of political transformations in the contemporary world, characterized by high instability and uncertainty. The article elaborates on the key contours of the emerging new world order, as well as the associated critical threats, challenges, risks, and prospects.
Key words: global structure, global governance, world order, postmodern, sustainable development, Westphalian system, unipolarity, polycentrism, civilization, actor, Cold War, geopolitics, crisis.
DOI: 10.56429/2414-4894-2024-47-1-03-22

Global Law as an Emerging Area of Legal Regulation of International Relations in a Multipolar World

Grebnev R.D.
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The article presents the rationale for the approach to understanding global law as an emerging direction of legal regulation of international relations arising between the subjects of a polycentric system of international relations in the process of forming a multipolar world. Considering the crisis of international law and international organizations, justified in the text of the article on the example of the UN, in accordance with the author’s approach, in order to implement the concept of multipolarity, the key actors in the regionalization of political processes will have to establish a world conference aimed at adopting a global declaration of multipolarity. Global law, based on the global declaration of multipolarity, is designed to eliminate the gaps in international legal regulation that have arisen as a result of globalization and regionalization of political processes, as well as to establish global principles and priorities of international relations in a multipolar world. The relevance of the study is justified by the trends in the formation of a polycentric system of international relations and the distribution of spheres of influence between its centers. These trends are considered by the author in the context of the formation of a multipolar world. The present study aims to solve the problems of the concept of multipolarity. According to the author of the article, this decision relates to global law as a system of norms regulating relations between the subjects of a multipolar world. To substantiate the results of the study, the text of the article presents the relationship between international law and the concept of “rule-based order”. The irreversibility of the need to convene a world conference to establish a global declaration of multipolarity and form the foundations of global law on the principles of decentralization of global regulation of international relations is substantiated. The article presents the results of a study of the prerequisites for global law, its concept, subject, method and subject composition of international relations in a multipolar world.
Key words: global law, multipolarity, polycentricity, global declaration of multipolarity, crisis of international law, globalization of political processes, regionalization of political processes, decentralized system of global regulation of international affairs.
DOI: 10.56429/2414-4894-2024-47-1-23-38

Evolution of the Concept of “revolution”: a Comprehensive Analysis of the Features of the Theory of Revolutions

Bilyuga S.E., Kolesnikova E.A.
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The current trends of political, economic and social changes in the world, for the most part, are completely new in contrast to what was before. So, for example, the tendencies of the Great French, February or October revolutions – mass character, insurrection, violent character, complete overthrow of the previous system – in the XXI century actually completely disappeared and were replaced by a so-called completely new technologies of “color revolutions” used in various countries to change political leaders (and not state building, as it was before) through the democratization of the country by external actors. In addition, despite the more peaceful nature, new technologies do not have an effect in all countries, for example, the events in the USA (2011) and France (2018 – present) have demonstrated that in countries with a typical democratic political regime, the technologies of changing the political elite do not work, unlike those countries that do not has centuries of experience in building democratic principles and has only now begun to move towards the democratization of the system. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct an evolutionary analysis of the theory of revolutions in order to identify the stages, causes, features and trends of development in this area of the development of political sciences. In addition, the problem of versatility and ambiguity in the definition of the concept of “revolution” is now of the most urgent nature and requires a systematic approach to analysis.
Key words: socio-political destabilization, revolution, color revolutions, classical revolutions, evolution.
DOI: 10.56429/2414-4894-2024-47-1-39-56

Bait and Bleed Strategy: as a Tool for the United States to Maintain Global Hegemony

Li M., Liu P., Li Zh.
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Within the context of great power competition, the study of strategic theory holds significant importance for the maintenance of national security. The purpose of this paper is to interpret the bait and bleed strategy, and improve the theoretical framework and implementation pathways of the bait and bleed strategy. It explicates how the United States, through the execution of the bait and bleed strategy, achieves the prolonged attrition of its competitors, thereby preserving its relative power and the stability of its global hegemony. J. Mearsheimer, in “The Tragedy of Great Power Politics”, defines the “bait and bleed strategy” as one of the core strategies employed by the United States in its global pursuit of power and hegemony. Building upon this foundation, this article categorizes the implementation pathways of the bait and bleed strategy into two modes: seduction and provocation. When bait serves as a means of seducing others, decision-makers, beset by internal and external troubles, often opt for strategic compromises in exchange for bait that could alleviate their immediate predicaments. Consequently, they fall into traps stealthily pre-set by those who deploy the bait. On the other hand, when bait serves as a means of provoking others, states lacking a sense of security and possessing a strong perception of threat, are prone to entanglement in a security dilemma with a supported competitor, and may even resort to war, leading to prolonged attrition for themselves. This article employs two pioneering historical cases to examine the theoretical framework proposed above: NATO’s enticement of Russia to concede on the issue of German reunification, and its provocation of Russia, leading to its prolonged attrition in the Ukrainian crisis. The research findings indicate that the bait and bleed strategy is a significant strategic tool for the United States and its allies to exhaust and isolate their primary competitors. It is only by fully weighing the structural contradictions and long-term objectives of the competitors within the context of great power strategic competition, and by achieving rational and restrained decision-making, that the strategic risks of falling into bait and bleed traps can be mitigated.
Key words: great power competition, bait and bleed strategy, Russia-Ukraine conflict, NATO Eastern expansion.
DOI: 10.56429/2414-4894-2024-47-1-57-79

Features and Prospects of the Digital Yuan Development in the Field of International Finance

Mosakova E.A., Mirzabekov N.R.
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One of the trends of digitalization processes is the imposing of digital currencies aimed at simplifying and enhancing the transparency of settlements. China is actively promoting the digital yuan through the existing payment infrastructure. However, the country also faces a number of obstacles caused by U.S. sanctions’ pressure, as well as the emergence of digital currencies in a number of other states. Despite this, in international finance, there is a decrease in interest on the part of states in using the U.S. dollar in international settlements, which creates new conditions for the active development of the Chinese digital currency. In the course of the work, both general scientific methods were used, as well as special research methods such as collecting scientific sources, collecting information, economic and statistical analysis, SWOT analysis and scenario method. Within the framework of the article, a schematic description of the two-level digital yuan system was presented, strengths, weaknesses, threats, as well as scenarios for the development of the Chinese digital currency were identified. It was determined that the growth rate of the digital yuan is steadily growing, which is accompanied by an increasing trend towards a decrease in interest in the use of the dollar in international finance. Analysis of trends in the development of the digital yuan showed that the most promising development scenario in the coming years is the active conclusion of bilateral economic agreements with other countries related to the transition to the yuan in international settlements, as well as an increase in the number of wallets among the population of the country (wallets are owned by just over 10 percent of the population).
Key words: digital currency, digital yuan, digitalization, digital economy, international finance, cryptocurrency, world economy.
DOI: 10.56429/2414-4894-2024-47-1-80-95

German’s Approach to the Usage of Military Tools Outside NATO’s Zone of Responsibility: the Reasons of Integration or Geopolitics?

Trunov Ph.O.
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FRG’s foreign policy has been facing the shifting the balance between two groups of factors to the second one. The groups are the historical responsibility of Germany as the key aggressor in the Second World War and German’s interest to ensure the widest possible military-strategic presence on the world stage. The growing importance of the second factor stimulates the growing of geopolitical determination in the usage of the Bundeswehr outside the NATO’s zone of responsibility. In this regard the article tries to explore the ratio between the geopolitical and integration reasons. The scientific paper bases on the usage of the documents of the Bundestag, Office of the Federal Chancellor, Ministry of Defence and also NATO. The author uses the neoliberalism and neorealism theories, the method of comparative analysis. The article explores the importance of geopolitical reasons in Germany’s military activity in the Balkans, in Somali (the Horn of Africa), Afghanistan (the Middle East), in the Near East and in the northern parts of Africa. The author shows the opportunities for camouflage of geopolitical reasons under integration in FRG’s military activity. FRG has been increasing noticeably the contribution to and role in the system of confrontations between the “liberal democracies” and key non-Western actors (Russia, China and Iran). The tendency is de-facto accompanied by increasing importance of geopolitical reasons in German military activity at the global level. It will lead to removal of informal taboos, open discussion about the role of geopolitical factors in German socio-political and scientific discourse in the future. The scientific paper stresses the importance of geopolitical factors for the usage of the Bundeswehr outside the NATO’s zone of responsibility, especially for the key cases (in Afghanistan and Mali).
Key words: Germany, Bundeswehr, military presence, global level, integration, association, geopolitics.
DOI: 10.56429/2414-4894-2024-47-1-96-110

Fall Session Results of the International Scientific Congress “Globalistics-2023: Challenges of Artificial Intelligence and Change of Scientific and Technological Paradigms”

Ilyin I.V., Gabdullin R.R., Rubtsova E.V., Prokhorova D.A.
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The article describes the fall session of the International Scientific Congress “Globalistics-2023: challenges of artificial intelligence and change of scientific and technological paradigms”, held from October, 23 to October, 27, 2023. Events of the Congress were held in online, mixed and offline formats. The panelists presented their ideas in Russian, English and Chinese. The article is devoted to the results of the spring session of the Congress.
Key words: globalistics, artificial intelligence, Vernadsky, sustainable development, Faculty of Global Studies, Club of Rome, the future of humanity.
DOI: 10.56429/2414-4894-2024-47-1-111-127

Features of Digital Economy Development in Russia and China: Russian-Сhinese Cooperation in the Context of the Global Digital Economy

Ilyin I.V., Liu Wenge, Yudina T.N., Zhang Chi
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The article presents the results of a joint study by Russian and Chinese scientists of the features of the digital economy and digitalization in the Russian Federation and China, Russian-Chinese cooperation through the prism of the global digital economy and hegemony. Adaptation of the materials of the article took place within the framework of the round table (teleconference) of the FGP Lomonosov Moscow State University and Liaoning University on the topic “Development of the Digital Economy in Russia and China” VII International Scientific Congress “GLOBALISTICS-2023” April 24, 2023. The study was conducted on the basis of official documents on the development of the digital economy in Russia and China; statistical data from international and national portals; scientific works of Russian, Chinese and other foreign researchers devoted to the digital transformation and development of the digital economy in Russia and China from the point of view of the global digital economy and hegemony. The research methodology includes interdisciplinary, institutional and economic methods, a comparative analysis of statistical data and content analysis, a method of interpreting new economic concepts and concepts. The results of the study, which are scientific novelty, are, firstly, the positioning of the global digital economy and against its background and in a certain interaction – the national digital economies, Russian and Chinese, which have specific features of digital transformation, digitalization, formation and development of the digital economy. Secondly, the identification of the phenomenon of increasing global digital hegemony. Thirdly, an assessment is given of Russian-Chinese cooperation in the field of digital development of the economies of both countries. The digital economy of Russia and China is still the driver of economic growth. Russian-Chinese cooperation in the field of digital economy, based on a firm contractual platform and the concept of a common peaceful destiny of mankind, will continue despite the digital hegemony from the West.
Key words: global digital economy, relationship between digitalization and globalization, features of the digital economy and digitalization of Russia, features of the digital economy and digitalization of China, Russian-Chinese cooperation in the field of digital economy, digital hegemony.
DOI: 10.56429/2414‑4894‑2023‑46‑4‑05‑22

Models of Religious Education in Russia and the European Countries in Context of Informatization

Bezrukov V.I., Lukashina E.V., Lukashin A.V.
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The article attempts to consider the features of religious education in Russia and European countries in the conditions of active informatization of society. In the context of the problem of religion virtualization, various models of religious education in secondary and higher education in European countries are analyzed. The key method of the presented research is a comparative analysis, which allows comparing the models of religious education in Russian Federation and Europe. Analytical reviews, reports of the expert community of Russia and Europe, a large body of scientific publications of domestic and foreign authors on the impact of informatization on religiosity are used as an empirical basis. The article examines the basic approaches to religious education in Russia, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, the countries of Scandinavia and the Balkan region. It is noted that at the moment there is no single European model of religious education, and four basic types of religious education can be distinguished (secular, confessional, non-confessional, mixed). There is an increase in the influence of information technology on the religious sphere over the past 20 years. This process also affected the pedagogical sphere, which manifested itself in “mediatization of religion”. As part of the educational process, this circumstance puts before the teacher the need to improve their digital competence, master new tools of the digital environment and online communication.
Key words: religious education, informatization, online technologies, education in Europe, youth.
DOI: 10.56429/2414‑4894‑2023‑46‑4‑23‑44

The PRC Modern Foreign Policy in the Context of Traditional and Global Values

Krasnova V.D.
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The article is devoted to the analysis of the influence of global and traditional values on the foreign policy of the People’s Republic of China. Particular attention is paid to the study of the value bases of modern China’s foreign policy goals. The main sources were the materials of the Communist Party of China congresses, speeches by General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and Chairman of the People’s Republic of China Xi Jinping. The points of view and concepts of specialists in the field of Chinese foreign policy were also taken into account. The study uses historical and systematic approaches. The key research method is the analysis of the empirical base, in particular, the materials of the PRC party congresses. In addition, the method of comparative analysis, general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis are used. The influence of Marxist, liberal and traditional (mostly Confucian) values on China’s foreign policy is traced, which is reflected in the conceptual provisions of the foreign policy ideas of the current Chairman of the PRC Xi Jinping at the 18th and 19th CPC Congresses, as well as in the goals of the development of the PRC outlined in the report of the 20th congress. Examining the conceptual points of Xi Jinping’s foreign policy guidelines, it becomes obvious that today the modern foreign policy of the PRC is based on three value “pillars” – Marxist values, traditional values and liberal values. The foreign policy of the People’s Republic of China, based on this value hybrid, can become fertile ground for the implementation of the concept of the “Chinese dream”, the revival of Chinese civilization and the construction of a new world order.
Key words: values, Chinese foreign policy, 20th CPC Congress, Chinese Dream.
DOI: 10.56429/2414‑4894‑2023‑46‑4‑45‑54

The Educational Aspect of British Public Diplomacy in Japan: Key Trends and Realization Issues

Sevriuk V.S.
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In this paper, the author explores the main trends in the implementation of the educational track of British public diplomacy in Japan. The problems that hinder the quality work of British public diplomacy in the framework of the third dimension are considered separately. Emphasis is placed on the activities of the British Council, which is aimed at attracting students and school audiences. Separately, statistics of students coming to Britain from Japan were given. The main areas of cooperation between British and Japanese universities were also highlighted. It was revealed that, despite the low intensity of the work of British organizations in Japan, the educational track of public diplomacy is represented by the British Council, several language centers of the IELTS organization and the RENKEI interuniversity partnership. At the same time, there is a low intensity of student exchanges and the low attractiveness of British universities for Japanese applicants, which acts as a negative indicator of the success of public diplomacy. In the political discourse of Britain and in official documents, Japan, despite the declared “Indo-Pacific tilt”, is represented extremely limited. This illustrates the discrepancy between the new priorities of London’s foreign policy in the context of increasing military and economic ties with Tokyo as a key Asian partner for Western countries. British public diplomacy in Japan has not been fully implemented due to the fact that the British Council and the IELTS organization face a number of “counterweights” natural for Japanese society: a small demand for foreign education for applicants from Japan and a low level of English proficiency at the national level, etc. At the same time, London’s interests are also represented at the level of inter-university partnerships.
Key words: public diplomacy, British Council, UK, Japan, international students.
DOI: 10.56429/2414‑4894‑2023‑46‑4‑55‑66

Nuclear Energy Co-operation Between the U.S. And Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

Sidorova E.S.
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As energy supplies issues are getting more politicized with Russian enterprises being blotted out from Central and Eastern Europe, the rapid development of the region’s nuclear market provides for the expansion of presence of U.S. energy corporations there. Among these companies is Westinghouse that is revised in the paper – one of the world’s largest exporters of nuclear power plant construction services and fuel. Amongst the methods used in this research is SWOT-analysis that allows to assess actual state of the enterprises of the American commercial nuclear sector in the global market, as well as the factors both constraining and contributing to the development of dialogue with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in this area are pointed out. Based on materials from domestic and foreign scientific publications, as well as statistical data from leading analytical centers, the author comes to the conclusion that the U.S. nuclear industry is in decline and requires greater financial support from the federal government. In this regard, despite the significant potential for strengthening energy ties, the future of Washington’s energy dialogue with the Central and Eastern European states depends primarily on what steps the U.S. administration will take at the national level to support the industry. However, the U.S. position on this market is unlikely to change fundamentally in the medium term.
Key words: Central and Eastern Europe, nuclear energy, energy cooperation, export of civilian nuclear technologies, nuclear fuel, energy dialogue between the USA and European countries.
DOI: 10.56429/2414‑4894‑2023‑46‑4‑67‑84

Linguistic and Information Integration for Global Communication and Transportation Systems of the Silk Road Countries

Sukhoruchkina I.N., Sukhoruchkina A.A.
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The article subject is language integration for global communication and transportation systems of the Silk Road countries. Purpose and objectives are to show language integration, cooperation between international organizations, the UN and language regulators of the countries for global transportation and communication systems. The research sources are documents of the UN, international and government agencies, language regulators, language policy legislation in these countries. Statistical, structural, model, institutional and comparative data analysis has been used. Language and culture integration of the Silk Road transportation and communication systems and language atlases have been analyzed. Our linguo-regional classification of languages of 61 countries of the Silk Road by regions such as Asia-Pacific (28 official languages of 27 states), Europe (11 official languages of 12 states), Arab countries (official Arabic and 4 other languages of 19 states), Africa (5 official languages of 3 states), their official languages, numbers of speakers, regulators and websites have been presented. Language policy and information technology integration and problems are reflected in the legislation of the Silk Road countries, the UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe and OSCE documents. The Silk Road ensured cooperation of countries on the basis of linguocultural and information technology integration and thanks to the language regulators, UNESCO, UNWTO efforts in the Development Roadmap for the Silk Road Heritage Conservation.
Key words: Silk Road, linguoregional classification, global communication system, linguistic geography, language atlas, linguistic and information technology integration, UNESCO.
DOI: 10.56429/2414‑4894‑2023‑46‑4‑85‑103

Emerging Trends in Global Political Processes

Ilyin Ilya V., Leonova Olga G.
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The authors consider 2022 as a turning point, completing the next stage of history and marking the beginning of a new era. The method of global political forecasting is used as an extrapolation of the global political challenges that have developed in the present, which predetermine trends in the development of global political processes, to the future state of the global political system. This method represents a probabilistic approach to the phenomena of the future, taking into account a wide range of possible options and it can be used for short-term forecasts. The future is seen as a product of politics, and political activity as an important component that can largely determine trends in global development. Based on the use of the “challenge-response” principle, it becomes possible to predict not the probability of any events, but a certain predetermined reaction to global political challenges. The article forecasts trends in the development of global political processes and provides a forecast of the formation of the international agenda for the coming years. The following trends in the development of global political processes have been identified: the geopolitical rift; the ongoing crisis of global governance; humanitarian disasters caused by a number of global crises (climate, energy, food, migration) and the increase in conflict potential; the increasing role of the countries of the Global South in geopolitics; the development of the format of minilatralism and its impact on international cooperation. The analysis showed that it is political goals and objectives, values and meanings that become the dominant locomotive of global political development and motivators of political action by global political actors. The authors have made the conclusion about the increasing role of the political component of global processes.
Key words: global political forecasting, “challenge—response”, global political challenges, global political processes, trends in global development.

Corruption as a Factor of Socio-political Destabilization in Neighboring Russia Countries: Experience of Quantitative Analysis

Bilyuga Stanislav E., Goryunova Maria E.
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The events of the early 2000s showed that the technologies of changing power through “color revolutions” work in countries with a high level of perception of corruption, other things being equal, problems in the economy, politics and society. The objective of this study is to study, using quantitative methods, the existence of links and patterns between the corruption perception index and types of socio-political destabilization, in particular, for neighboring countries, as one of the unstable zones of the world. The conducted statistical analysis showed that for neighboring countries there is a statistically significant positive relationship between the value of the corruption perception index and various indices of socio-political destabilization. The obtained result proves why the revolutionary events of the XXI century in the region under consideration occur precisely in those countries where the level of perception of corruption has high values.
Key words: socio-political destabilization, index of corruption, index of socio-political destabilization, types of socio-political destabilization.

Foreign Policy Orientation of the Republic of Serbia at the Present Stage

Bocharova Zoya S., Natzike Belike
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Modern international relations are experiencing extreme uncertainty, military and political polarization, which increases the negative consequences of interstate relations. Geopolitical changes associated with the collapse of states, changes from national borders and threats to the sovereignty of small countries are becoming a factor of instability. The Republic of Serbia is a vivid example of this regard. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors determining the foreign policy guidelines on the Republic of Serbia at the present stage. The specificity of the place of Serbia in the world arena is determined by its strategic geopolitical position and aspiration for dominance in the Western Balkans and the Non-Aligned Movement. It has been revealed that the stability of the foreign policy of the Republic of Serbia is given by the awareness of the goals of national security, multi-vector strategy “four pillars”. Realizing that confrontation with the world political relations contributes to their imbalance and destabilization, Serbia declares a policy of neutrality and maneuvering in order to preserve its sovereignty and identity, to avoid excessive pressure of the dominant powers. The European foreign policy vectors remain a priority to Serbia. But on the way to European Union membership, there are unresolved problems related to the recognition of Kosovo independence, sanctions against Russia, anti-American sentiments of the majority of the population. At the same time, Serbia realizes the economic advantages of cooperation not only with the EU, but also with China, and pragmatically relies on Russia’s support in solving economic problems and the Kosovo issue. Factors shaping Serbia’s foreign policy are multilateral diplomacy, multilateral cooperation, non-use of force, peaceful mediation and peacemaking, and a desire for peaceful political resolution of conflicts.
Key words: foreign policy course, foreign policy priorities, foreign policy, Re8 public of Serbia, China, Russia, EU, USA.

Implementation of the Experience of Scientific and Technical Cooperation Between the Ussr and the Usa in Overcoming the Systemic Crisis in Relations Between Russia and the United States

Kunts Victor Y.
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In the context of the transformation of the system of international relations towards a multipolar world, it becomes obvious that contradictions arise in the field of international cooperation, which has destructive consequences for the development of the world community. In connection with the expansion of negative trends in the field of world progress, the experience of scientific and technical cooperation between the USSR and the USA in the 20th century can be used to maintain interaction between Russia and the USA in modern geopolitical conditions, at least at the minimum acceptable level. Between the Russian Federation and the United States, interaction in space continues, despite the systemic crisis in relations and serious contradictions in the conceptual foundations of the countries’ foreign policy. However, the half-century experience of cooperation between the Soviet Union and the United States in the field of protecting the environment and the oceans has now been suspended. The main sources of work were the materials of the periodical press, legal documents regulating the relations between states, documents of international organizations, speeches by leaders of countries and statistical data on the scientific and technical policy of countries. The article uses the scientific research of Russian and foreign authors who studied the “detente of international tension”, the experience of cooperation between the USSR and the USA in the field of science and technology, as well as the prospects for scientific and technological revolution in Russia and the United States. Systemic contradictions in relations between Russia and the United States may lead to the formation of a new Cold War and possible direct confrontation between the countries and their allies in the future. However, the joint development of the near-Earth space by Russia as the legal successor of the USSR and the United States is a kind of barrier to direct confrontation and one of the possible ways to normalize relations between countries.
Key words: scientific and technical cooperation, global problems, relations bet8 ween Russia and the USA, space cooperation, environmental protection.

Political Aspects of the Iran-China Agreement on the Universal Cooperation: Rapprochement of Iran and China in the Context of the Opposition to the USA

Ebrahimitorkaman Ali
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The article discusses the comprehensive agreement between Iran and China on comprehensive strategic cooperation reached in March 2021, which the parties came to three years after the US withdrew from the nuclear agreement with Iran, in the context of the development of Iranian-Chinese relations at the present stage that have reached the level of strategic partnership. During the presidency of Donald Trump, China and especially Iran were subjected to serious political and economic pressure, which, on the one hand, led to a decrease in Iranian-Chinese economic cooperation, and on the other hand, greatly contributed to the political rapprochement of the two countries and ultimately helped to reach a strategic agreement. According to it, China will modernize Iran’s infrastructure and invest $400 billion in its economy in exchange for a discount on the purchase of Iranian oil. Despite optimistic expectations, the actual results of the implementation of the agreement turned out to be unsatisfactory: trade and investment did not grow as quickly as expected. This is due to the reluctance of Chinese companies to fall under US sanctions. However, the serious development of trade and economic cooperation with Iran is, of course, a long-term goal of the PRC leadership. Further implementation of the agreement will depend on China’s intentions and its willingness to worsen relations with its largest trading partner, the United States. If the US returns to the nuclear agreement and lifts sanctions, full implementation of the agreement can be expected.
Key words: Iran, China, energy, strategic cooperation, comprehensive agreement

Spring Session Results of the International Scientific Congress “Globalistics-2023: Sustainable Development in the Context of Global Processes”

Ilyin Ilya V., Gabdullin Ruslan R., Rubtsova Ekaterina V., Prokhorova Daria A.
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This article describes the spring session of the International Scientific Congress “Globalistics-2023: Sustainable development in the context of global processes”, held from April, 17 to April, 27, 2023. Within the framework of the Congress, events were held in online, mixed and offline formats. The panelists presented their ideas in Russian, English and Chinese. The article is devoted to the results of the spring session of the Congress.
Key words: globalistics, Vernadsky, sustainable development, noosphere, ecology, Faculty of Global Processes, Club of Rome, the future of humanity

Geopolitical Influence Centers in a Multipolar World: Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the Role and Status

Grebnev Ruslan D.
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The article presents the results of a study of theoretical and methodological aspects of the role and status of the center of geopolitical influence in the context of the formation of a two-level system of global governance in a multipolar world. The relevance of this study is justified by the proactivity of the key actors in the regionalization of global political processes associated with the formation of the poles of a multipolar world and the transition from a monocentric to a polycentric model of global governance. The main methodological approaches of this study are geopolitical, cybernetic, civilizational and organistic. When conducting the study, not related to the specified methodological approaches, but justified by the objectives of the study, general and special research methods were also used. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the systemforming factor in the formation of the pole of a multipolar world is the property of the middle ground and geopolitical subjectivity of the center of geopolitical influence. The structure of the pole of the multipolar world is determined by the ability of states to ensure the functional integrity of the regional system of international relations. The concept of multipolarity as an ideological superstructure of the globalization of political processes cannot be realized without the formation of a system of decentralized global governance based on the consensus of centers of geopolitical influence in a multipolar world. The study identified the following factors in the formation of global governance bodies in a multipolar world: the middle Pacific, the diversification of economic cooperation between centers of geopolitical influence, and the need for joint security by the poles of a multipolar world.
Key words: geopolitical influence center, global governance, multipolarity, globalization and regionalization of political processes, geopolitics, cybernetics, middle ground.

Analysis of the Federal Republic of Germany Within the NATO

Lomakin Artem S.
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The article analysis the activities of Germany’s national armed forces within the framework of NATO missions. These activities hold particular interest for the study of Germany’s growing autonomy on the world stage. Considering the current state of regional security, the focus of the article is on the contribution of the Bundeswehr and the politicomilitary leadership of the FRG to a number of missions in different regions of the world, which allows to consider Germany as a state that seeks to play a more active role in ensuring security in Europe. The geographic expansion of the Bundeswehr’s forces and capabilities as well as the intensity of the missions indicates increasing in autonomy of the Federal Republic of Germany on the international arena. Simultaneously with this growing independence, there is an increasing interest on the part of the German politico-military leadership to participate in the Alliance’s missions in Eastern Europe, where tensions are higher than ever before.
Key words: FRG, Bundeswehr, political-military leadership, NATO, EU, UN, military policy, political-military cooperation, special military operation, Ukraine, defense budget

New Aspects of Eurasian Integration (EAEU Experience)

Molchanova Natalia P.
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A successful example of the development of regional integration processes in the economic space of Eurasia is the functioning of the states within the EAEU. An analysis of the economic structure of the member countries leads to the conclusion about the priority role of industry and trade and economic relations in strengthening the position of the EAEU in the international arena. The necessity of the growth of macroeconomic indicators (volumes of production and services, foreign exports and mutual trade) and the activity of administrative-territorial entities in order to find reliable partners in the context of ongoing anti-Russian sanctions in order to strengthen interstate cooperation is substantiated. A more substantive application of the scientific tools of country studies to identify the prospects for the development of integration processes in the Eurasian space is proposed. Recommendations on the need for an in-depth study of individual countries, their natural resource characteristics, population distribution, economic potential and its most important elements have been formulated. Further regional scientific research should be focused on identifying resource opportunities and factors of territorial competitiveness in order to search for promising market niches, and on this basis, develop economic and financial regulation measures, create favorable conditions for economic activity and develop international cooperation.
Key words: Greater Eurasia, partnership, international division of labor, regional integration, total economic potential.

On the Issue of the Impact of the Consequences of the Pandemic on Socio-economic Processes

Pokrytan Pavel A, Xi Fuyuan
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The coronavirus pandemic, which began in 2020, was the largest phenomenon in terms of its scale in recent decades and had a global impact on all aspects of public life, including socio-economic processes. An assessment of the scale of the impact of the pandemic on the socio-economic processes in socialist China is the subject of this article. The article continues a two-year large-scale study of the problem of the impact of the consequences of a pandemic on socio-economic processes in countries with various forms of public economy. Socio-economic processes in the People’s Republic of China during the pandemic showed the opposite dynamics to the marketoriented countries of the European Union, the Russian Federation and the United States. This is determined by the conditions for the formation of these forms of production. The study showed that the consequences of the pandemic had a multi-vector impact on socio-economic processes in countries with various forms of public economy. If in market-oriented countries the pandemic in its movement leads to the same consequences as the general law of capitalist accumulation, compensating for the weakening of its action, then in a non-market-oriented country the pandemic did not have a noticeable impact on socio-economic development, determined by five-year plans. As a result of the study, it was shown that the socio-economic consequences of the pandemic in marketoriented countries led to a narrowed reproduction of the social product, while in the People’s Republic of China, the reproduction of the social product continued to be expanded.
Key words: pandemic, dynamics of indicators, socio-economic processes, market oriented countries, People’s Republic of China.

Russian-Chinese Relations in the Eurasian Space: Problems and Prospects for Cooperation

Yang Shuping
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The complexity of Russia-China relations in the Eurasian space prompts us to take a fresh look at these relations, using different angles to adequately understand the rapidly changing situation. The crucial task of maintaining an equal partnership between Russia and China as the balance of power changes often proves difficult. At present, it is impossible to fully describe Russian-Chinese interaction in the Eurasian space using only geopolitical concepts. The author uses the term “hedging”, which is borrowed from the financial-investment sphere, to solve the problems posed. Hedging in international relations is a strategy of building close relations with a strong partner while respecting its own interests and diversifying relations in order to prevent excessive dependence on it. This article analyzes Russia’s hedging against China’s behavior in the Eurasian space in three aspects: economics, security and the Eurasian integration concept. Geopolitical changes in the Eurasian space and inequality are the most important factors causing hedging between Russia and China. Russia hedges its risks vis-а-vis China in the pairing of the Eurasian Economic Union and the initiative “Belt and Road”, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the Eurasian integration initiative, which is characterized by increased collective bargaining power, diversified policies, and the search for alternatives. The consideration of Russia-China interaction from the perspective of hedging makes a definite contribution to the development of the theory of Russia-China relations. Nevertheless, this topic requires further research. Key words: Russian-Chinese relations, Eurasia, hedging, cooperation problems.

Circumstances of formation of the Belorussian ethnicity and their political outcomes

Aliev M.R., Aslanov L.A.
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Abstract. Russia, Ukraine and Belarussia have strong historical and blood ties. Unlike Russia, Ukraine and Belarussia didn’t have much of experience in maintaining their own sovereign statehood. The differences in historical circumstances caused emergence of distinct mentalities of the nations. The goal of the article is to investigate the circumstances that formed Belorussian mentality. The methodological framework consists of synergetic and historical-genetic approach as well as comparative analysis along with interdisciplinary methods of analysis and synthesis. White and Black Ruthenia weren’t obliterated by the Golden Horde. While being weakened by disintegration of the Kievan Rus’ they faced the Crusades which made them ally with the Lithuanians and form the Russo-Lithuanian state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Belorussian mentality was being formed within the decentralized federation of the Westruthenian and Lithuanian duchies, greatly influenced by heritage of the Kievan Rus’. White and Black Ruthenia were a core of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and brought cultural and political features of the Kievan Rus’ into the state. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania took the path of de+ centralized feudal state building where the Russian duchies had broad political autonomy and grand duke’s authority was limited by a social class of landowners called «Szlachta». The Belorussian ethnicity was being formed within the Russo-Lithuanian state influenced by the heritage of the Kievan Rus’ and emerged before the Union of Lublin. Feudal character of the Grand Duchy played the main role in the formation of the Belorussian mentality. Willing to defend their own unique political identity, White and Black Ruthenia fought against any state that tried to conquer them, including Muscovy.
Key words: White Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Russo5Lithuanian state, szlachta, Sarmatism

Turkey’s role in ensuring regional security in the Middle East: energy aspect

Kashuro I.A., Emelin D.R.
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Abstract. The Middle East remains the leader on a global scale in terms of the number of interstate conflicts, the rampant terrorism and religious extremism due to the lack of a regional security system. Nonetheless, there are number of states in the region that can contribute to the expansion of political instruments to re+ duce tension in the region, which also includes Turkey. The purpose of the article is to analyze the role of Turkey in ensuring the regional security of the Middle East from the point of view of the energy sector. To consider the role of Turkey in ensuring the regional security of the Middle East, content analysis was used in the process of studying the works of foreign and domestic researchers, a systematic approach that was necessary to consider the influence of socio-economic, political and religious-ethnic factors. An analysis of the role of Turkey in ensuring the regional security of the Middle East makes it possible to emphasize the key position of the Republic of Turkey for the formation of this region as one of the central gas distribution centers. Tur+ key’s multi-vector policy is becoming a kind of key to balancing power in the Midle East. And, despite such an explosive situation, which is becoming more complicated as the conflict in Ukraine escalates, Turkey’s current geopolitical position between Europe and Asia can help it become one of the most important actors that can strengthen regional security against the backdrop of newly growing tensions bet+ ween some countries in the Middle East.
Key words: regional security, Middle East, Turkish foreign policy, energy crisis, multi5vector approach.

From British elites’ values to promotion of national interests in international relations

Kornienko O.Yu.
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Abstract. The article analyzes the main tools of Britain’s influence in the international arena through the transmission of national identification values, both in retrospective and today. The institutional and historical methods and analytical approach are used in the research. The purpose of the study is to briefly show how some of the most important values of the British political elites have found their functionality in a practical context in the past and in modern realities. The conclusions are illustrated by the speeches of statesmen and references to the founding documents of the British Empire, the main of which is the Magna Carta. The evolution of such important concepts as the island mentality, the leading role of the problem of ownership in the formation of a precedent, the origins of the emergence of audit and consulting in the socio-political system of Great Britain, the formation of a network of private schools for the training of universal managers are traced, defining role and place of these factors in promoting British interests.
Key words: indirect rule, British political elites, private schools, consulting agencies, island mentality

South Caucasus countries in the foreign policy strategy of the People’s Republic of China

Kumukov A.M.
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Abstract. The article highlights the actual significance of transcontinental communications of the South Caucasus in China’s global projects, situational changes and their impact in the context of geopolitical conflicts between the West and Russia. The author points out the historical ties between China and the Caucasus, the extent to which the topic of China-South Caucasian relations is elaborated in the Russian scientific community. The main goal of his work — to study the role and impact of the South Caucasus in the foreign economic strategy of the People’s Republic of China. Using a variety of techniques (chronological, structural-analytical, comparison and collation), the author reviews the materials related to the creation of a new Silk Road. The thesis that the South Caucasus is significant for China in terms of countering the Islamist threat in the PRC is fallacious, indicates that there is no political interest of Beijing in the Caucasus, where the traditional Chinese tactics of “soft power” are being implemented.
Key words: China, South Caucasus, Russia, logistics, economic corridor, trans5 continental communications, diversification, trade

Olympic Games as a tool for forming the image of the People’s Republic of China

Zhao Na.
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Abstract. Due to the Olympic Games, China has been able to increase the scale of the “one community” in the fight against the global problems of mankind. Positive media coverage of the 2008 and 2022 Olympics, euphonious feedback from participants and observers strengthened the reputation of the state as a reliable and hospitable host that ensured the safety of observation and athletes. The purpose of this article is to study the Olympic Games as a tool of “soft power” for the formation of a positive image of the country. On the rise of the media discourse around the holding of the Winter Olympic Games in Beijing, it was shown how one can talk about one’s socio-economic achievements, the national image and the increase in the international authority of the state. The results of the study show that China was able to change the media discourse to a more desirable one for the image of the country during the 2022 Olympic Games. The opening ceremony of the 2022 Olympics was the culmination of a ceremony to celebrate China’s technological, socio-economic and cultural achievements. The reactions of the international community to the 2022 Winter Olympics can be described as positive. China’s handling of the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID+19 pandemic during the Olympics was highlighted. The successful use of resources and careful prepartion for the Olympics has allowed China to enhance its image in the international arena. The experience of China has become an important question of how the host countries of the Olympics can use the media communication opportunities that come from it.
Key words: Olympic Games, image of the country, Winter Olympic Games in Beijing, symbols of the 2022 Games, image of China.