Современные международные отношения

Peculiarities of Functioning of the European Gas Market (Political Aspect)

Alekseenko Oleg A.
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Introduction. The author analyzes the history, functional features and structure of the European gas market, which has undergone significant changes in recent years. The article describes the main players and infrastructure projects in the European gas market through the prism of geopolitical confrontation in the region.

Materials and methods. Sources and literature on the issues under study can be divided into three groups: official documents on the functioning and structure of the European gas market; statistical data from energy portals; works of scientists and researchers devoted to the functioning of the European gas market and the assessment of the geopolitical situation in the region. The research methodology included analysis and systems approach, content analysis, comparative analysis of statistical data and historical and sociological method.

Results of the study. The European natural gas market is currently at the stage of liberalization. Modern legislative initiatives are aimed at increasing environmental friendliness, energy security and diversification of suppliers.

Discussion. Gas is a key energy resource in the EU. This is confirmed by the list of gas infrastructure projects to be implemented in the coming years. A number of states, citing energy security considerations, seek to impede the development of Russian export infrastructure.

Conclusion. The EU energy policy is aimed at phasing out gas and switching to alternative energy sources. In the next two decades, there will be a gradual decline in imports. At the same time, key exporters will retain their presence in the European gas market.

Key words: gas, LNG, EU, gas market, Russia, USA.

China’s Role on the World Stage: Сhanges in the Covid-19 Pandemic Contexts

Arsentyeva Irina I.
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Introduction. The article examines changes in the geopolitical configuration of power centers on the world stage taking place against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. The main research purpose is to analyze the impact of current events on China’s international role and status.

Materials and methods. The primary sources are analytical materials, statistical data, documents on China’s domestic and foreign policy, speeches by officials, expert surveys, public opinion polls, media publications, etc. When working with the scientific literature and sources, a critical and comparative analysis, a systematic approach, methods of grouping, systematization and classification are applied.

Results of the study. Scientific works on the PRC’s development under pandemic conditions are systematized, the issues considered in them and research gaps are highlighted; the consequences of the coronavirus outbreak for China’s domestic and foreign policy are summarized; the likelihood of a change of global leader due to the pandemic is evaluated.

Discussion. The results obtained in the course of the study are compared with the estimates of other researchers, their similarities and contradictions are explained. This confirms the author’s hypothesis that the pandemic does not radically change geopolitical trends, it acts as a trigger for the processes that began long before the COVID-19 outbreak, but can unpredictably alter their trajectory under pandemic impact.

Conclusion. In the final part of the article, possible ways of further development of the “trigger situation” are predicted and prospects for study on the issue are outlined.

Key words: COVID-19 pandemic, China’s anti-epidemic experience, leadership in international relations, US-China confrontation, trigger, trigger situation, post-COVID-19 world.

From the Taliban to the Taliban 2.0: Transformation From Terrorist Organization Into State Power Institution in Afghanistan

Serebrova Anastasia M.
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Introduction. After 20 years since the fall of its regime, the Taliban has once again come to power in Afghanistan. In the presented article, the author tries to understand whether the Taliban’s approach to governing the country has changed and what challenges the world community will have to face in connection with the formation of a terrorist organization as a political force.

Materials and methods. Along with general scientific methods, the author applies an institutional approach and a cross-temporal method that allows to follow the transformation of the policy adapted by the Taliban that functioned as a state power institute in the period 1996—2001 and August—December 2021. The empirical basis of the study comprises a large amount of monographs and scientific articles provided by Russian and foreign researchers, speeches by political leaders and representatives of the expert community, statements of terrorist organizations leaders.

Results of the study. The author explains similar historical context of coming Taliban to power in Afghanistan. The article reveals a transformation of the role and place of the movement in the domestic political process of the country.

Discussion. There is continuity in the Taliban 2.0 approach to the principles of building a management system. The key difference lies in the changed self-positioning of the movement in the international arena in order to obtain not only economic assistance, but also to achieve official recognition as a legitimate political force.

Conclusion. Taliban’s coming to power for the second time is a consequence of the internal political situation that has developed in Afghanistan, after 2014. International community considers this organization as a guarantor of internal stability in the country. Nevertheless, in order to be officially recognized Taliban has to answer a number of big internal challenges.

Key words: Taliban, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Russia, terrorist threat.

International Scientific and Technical Cooperation of Russia and Foreign Countries: Instrument Review

Rakhamimov Sharon M.
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Introduction. International scientific and technical cooperation between Russia and foreign countries has recently become a subject of increasing attention from the scientific community.

Materials and methods. The purpose of the article is to identify the correspondence of the tools used in the international scientific and technical cooperation of Russia to the tools used in the most scientifically developed countries through a comparative study of ten cases from developed countries.

Results of the study. The main instruments are the approval of the executive authorities and scientific structures responsible for international scientific and technical cooperation; development of the regulatory framework in the field of regulation and development of international scientific and technical cooperation; creation and operation of large research infrastructures; inviting foreign researchers and conducting joint research projects in the field of fundamental and applied research; international mobility of students and researchers, holding events such as summer schools, seminars and conferences, creating joint postgraduate studies, providing grants for participation in international projects.

Discussion. It is important to understand that international scientific and technical cooperation develops “on its own”, as its own science develops, on the initiative and in the interests of Russian scientists themselves and their foreign colleagues, based on the ratio of the level of development of Russian and foreign science, which determines the nature of the dialogue.

Conclusion. In general, it can be concluded that the main international scientific and technical cooperation instruments in Russia correspond to the basic instruments in foreign countries.

Key words: international cooperation in science and technology, Russia, USA, Great Britain, Canada, Japan, China, Republic of Korea, Germany, France, India.

Modern global problems

Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: Main Reasons and Prospects for Resolution

Kochetkov Vladimir V.
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Introduction. After the collapse of the USSR, many ethnopolitical conflicts began to occur on the territory of the post-Soviet space. One of the most typical, but at the same time long-lasting and bloody is the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. This article attempts to analyze the main reasons and prospects for the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

Materials and methods. The methodological basis of the study was the paradigms of primordialism, constructivism and instrumentalism. The author relies on analytical articles and other sources of both domestic and foreign authors.

Results of the study. The study made it possible to identify the following main causes of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: historical, political, territorial, socio-economic, psychological, cultural, religious, civilizational, situational. There is also a conflict of identities in Nagorno-Karabakh.

Discussion. Ethnopolitical conflicts are the result of geopolitical, geoeconomic and geostrategic changes in the modern global world. Ethnicity is subject to the all-round influence of globalization. States whose ethnic structure was relatively stable are facing profound transformations. The collapse of the USSR led to the emergence of independent states on its territory, in which the ethnic factor plays a significant role. This led to many ethnopolitical conflicts in the territory of the post-Soviet space. One of the most typical, but at the same time one of the longest and bloodiest is the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

Conclusion. The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict dates back to 1918, when this territory, inhabited by ethnic Armenians, was arbitrarily incorporated into Azerbaijan. In modern conditions, there is no solution to the conflict. It can be postponed until future times when the necessary conditions are ripe for this.

Key words: Karabakh war, ethnopolitical conflict, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, internalization of conflicts, conflicts in the post-Soviet space, Armenian-Azerbaijani war, genocide, discrimination.

Prospects of Developing the Strategic Partnership Between Russia and China Into a Military-political Alliance

Kuzitsyna Anna А.
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Introduction. Relationship between the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China play the key role in the international relations in the 21st century. Nowadays these relations are gradually evolving. Therefore, the task is to research the preconditions for transforming the relations between Russia and China into a military-political alliance. The reason for the investigation was the speech of Russian President Vladimir Putin in October 2019 in Sochi, who referred to the relationship between Russia and China as an alliance.

Materials and methods. The research base includes statements declared by Russian and Chinese officials, materials of Valdai Discussion Club, scientific articles by Russian and Chinese authors, and opinions of Western political scientists presented in publicly available sources. There have been used methods of analyzing official documents and current international events, reviewing, and comparing related studies, and predicting possible future developments.

Results of the study. Studying and comparing points of view, which are presented by Chinese and Russian scientists, gave an integral version of the development of the bilateral relationship between China and Russia. Moreover, it revealed the circumstances and forces leading to the formation of the alliance. According to the results of the study, changes to Russian foreign policy position are possible, specifically it may identify and eliminate the obstacles in the formation of relations with China on the Russian side.

Discussion. This article’s research question about the possibility of the military-political alliance between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation in the light of intensified struggle for spheres of influence and the establishment of a new world order has been answered affirmatively. Besides, the probability of forming such an alliance in the context of struggling three world’s leading powers (Russia—USA—China) seems most likely. At the same time, the article describes time frames, strategic motivation and tactical issues affecting the mechanisms of format implementation. Moreover, the article identifies the obstacles of establishing a military-political alliance and analyzes the ways to eliminate it. It is pointed out that the opinion expressed in the study is not in a mainstream one because realization and implementation are connected with serious difficulties in the internal and external situations in which political decisions are made. Since the main trigger of forging the alliance is marked, the article is of practical interest for researchers in the field.

Conclusion. The main factor that impacts on the possible development of the strategic partnership into an alliance is increasing opponent’s pressure on a global level. The article concludes that the transformation of the relations into an alliance is in the national interests of the two countries. In case Washington’s policy of containment is intensified, the military-political alliance between Moscow and Beijing is likely to happen.

Key words: China, Russia, the US, alliance, world order, national interests.

События и рецензии

The Global World in the Focus of Global Studies: a New Book About Globalistics

Muza Dmitiry E.
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Annotation. The review examines the text and context of a new educational publication published at the Faculty of Global Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The author is a well-known Russian scientist, organizer of education and science, Dean of the Faculty of Global Studies, Doctor of Political Sciences, Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor I.V. Ilyin. The issues of structure and content lines of the textbook are covered in detail. It is shown that its knowledge intensity has scales that go beyond the limits of a purely educational text and correlates with the actual subject and methodological facticity of global studies.

Key words: educational publication on Globalistics, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, professor I.V. Ilyin, current state and prospects of global research.