№ 1 • 2023 • JANUARY—MARCH

Circumstances of formation of the Belorussian ethnicity and their political outcomes

Aliev M.R., Aslanov L.A.
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Abstract. Russia, Ukraine and Belarussia have strong historical and blood ties. Unlike Russia, Ukraine and Belarussia didn’t have much of experience in maintaining their own sovereign statehood. The differences in historical circumstances caused emergence of distinct mentalities of the nations. The goal of the article is to investigate the circumstances that formed Belorussian mentality. The methodological framework consists of synergetic and historical-genetic approach as well as comparative analysis along with interdisciplinary methods of analysis and synthesis. White and Black Ruthenia weren’t obliterated by the Golden Horde. While being weakened by disintegration of the Kievan Rus’ they faced the Crusades which made them ally with the Lithuanians and form the Russo-Lithuanian state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Belorussian mentality was being formed within the decentralized federation of the Westruthenian and Lithuanian duchies, greatly influenced by heritage of the Kievan Rus’. White and Black Ruthenia were a core of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and brought cultural and political features of the Kievan Rus’ into the state. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania took the path of de+ centralized feudal state building where the Russian duchies had broad political autonomy and grand duke’s authority was limited by a social class of landowners called «Szlachta». The Belorussian ethnicity was being formed within the Russo-Lithuanian state influenced by the heritage of the Kievan Rus’ and emerged before the Union of Lublin. Feudal character of the Grand Duchy played the main role in the formation of the Belorussian mentality. Willing to defend their own unique political identity, White and Black Ruthenia fought against any state that tried to conquer them, including Muscovy.
Key words: White Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Russo5Lithuanian state, szlachta, Sarmatism

Turkey’s role in ensuring regional security in the Middle East: energy aspect

Kashuro I.A., Emelin D.R.
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Abstract. The Middle East remains the leader on a global scale in terms of the number of interstate conflicts, the rampant terrorism and religious extremism due to the lack of a regional security system. Nonetheless, there are number of states in the region that can contribute to the expansion of political instruments to re+ duce tension in the region, which also includes Turkey. The purpose of the article is to analyze the role of Turkey in ensuring the regional security of the Middle East from the point of view of the energy sector. To consider the role of Turkey in ensuring the regional security of the Middle East, content analysis was used in the process of studying the works of foreign and domestic researchers, a systematic approach that was necessary to consider the influence of socio-economic, political and religious-ethnic factors. An analysis of the role of Turkey in ensuring the regional security of the Middle East makes it possible to emphasize the key position of the Republic of Turkey for the formation of this region as one of the central gas distribution centers. Tur+ key’s multi-vector policy is becoming a kind of key to balancing power in the Midle East. And, despite such an explosive situation, which is becoming more complicated as the conflict in Ukraine escalates, Turkey’s current geopolitical position between Europe and Asia can help it become one of the most important actors that can strengthen regional security against the backdrop of newly growing tensions bet+ ween some countries in the Middle East.
Key words: regional security, Middle East, Turkish foreign policy, energy crisis, multi5vector approach.

From British elites’ values to promotion of national interests in international relations

Kornienko O.Yu.
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Abstract. The article analyzes the main tools of Britain’s influence in the international arena through the transmission of national identification values, both in retrospective and today. The institutional and historical methods and analytical approach are used in the research. The purpose of the study is to briefly show how some of the most important values of the British political elites have found their functionality in a practical context in the past and in modern realities. The conclusions are illustrated by the speeches of statesmen and references to the founding documents of the British Empire, the main of which is the Magna Carta. The evolution of such important concepts as the island mentality, the leading role of the problem of ownership in the formation of a precedent, the origins of the emergence of audit and consulting in the socio-political system of Great Britain, the formation of a network of private schools for the training of universal managers are traced, defining role and place of these factors in promoting British interests.
Key words: indirect rule, British political elites, private schools, consulting agencies, island mentality

South Caucasus countries in the foreign policy strategy of the People’s Republic of China

Kumukov A.M.
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Abstract. The article highlights the actual significance of transcontinental communications of the South Caucasus in China’s global projects, situational changes and their impact in the context of geopolitical conflicts between the West and Russia. The author points out the historical ties between China and the Caucasus, the extent to which the topic of China-South Caucasian relations is elaborated in the Russian scientific community. The main goal of his work — to study the role and impact of the South Caucasus in the foreign economic strategy of the People’s Republic of China. Using a variety of techniques (chronological, structural-analytical, comparison and collation), the author reviews the materials related to the creation of a new Silk Road. The thesis that the South Caucasus is significant for China in terms of countering the Islamist threat in the PRC is fallacious, indicates that there is no political interest of Beijing in the Caucasus, where the traditional Chinese tactics of “soft power” are being implemented.
Key words: China, South Caucasus, Russia, logistics, economic corridor, trans5 continental communications, diversification, trade

Olympic Games as a tool for forming the image of the People’s Republic of China

Zhao Na.
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Abstract. Due to the Olympic Games, China has been able to increase the scale of the “one community” in the fight against the global problems of mankind. Positive media coverage of the 2008 and 2022 Olympics, euphonious feedback from participants and observers strengthened the reputation of the state as a reliable and hospitable host that ensured the safety of observation and athletes. The purpose of this article is to study the Olympic Games as a tool of “soft power” for the formation of a positive image of the country. On the rise of the media discourse around the holding of the Winter Olympic Games in Beijing, it was shown how one can talk about one’s socio-economic achievements, the national image and the increase in the international authority of the state. The results of the study show that China was able to change the media discourse to a more desirable one for the image of the country during the 2022 Olympic Games. The opening ceremony of the 2022 Olympics was the culmination of a ceremony to celebrate China’s technological, socio-economic and cultural achievements. The reactions of the international community to the 2022 Winter Olympics can be described as positive. China’s handling of the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID+19 pandemic during the Olympics was highlighted. The successful use of resources and careful prepartion for the Olympics has allowed China to enhance its image in the international arena. The experience of China has become an important question of how the host countries of the Olympics can use the media communication opportunities that come from it.
Key words: Olympic Games, image of the country, Winter Olympic Games in Beijing, symbols of the 2022 Games, image of China.