№ 2 • 2022 • APRIL—JUNE

Rio-92: Preliminary Results of the 30th Anniversary of the Sustainable Development Strategy (Part 1: Sustainable Development: Historical and Theoretical Foundations)

Los Victor A.
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Introduction. Rio 92 — United Nations Conference on Environment and Deve
lopment (Rio de Janeiro, June 1992) under the auspices of which not only the con
cept of sustainable development was formulated, but also the main mechanisms and
principles for its implementation — SD strategy, were developed. Thus, the basic
landmarks of the historical dynamics of civilization of the late XX — XXI centuries
were outlined.
Materials and methods. The work uses data from domestic and foreign sources
on the historical, philosophical, and methodological aspects of sustainable develop
ment. The study is based on general scientific methods of logical analysis, compari
son, and generalization. The systematic approach used in the work contributes to
a holistic consideration of the theoretical foundations of the sustainable development
Results of the study. The problem of the relationship between man and his en
vironment initially became the object of deep religious and philosophical reflection.
However, only at the beginning of the XX century, its interpretation reaches the level
of fundamental scientific research. In this context, special importance is given to
the analysis of the ideas of V.I.Vernadsky, who gave the social and environmental
issues a conceptual character, linking the idea about the “autotrophy of mankind”
with the phenomenon of the noosphere.
Discussion. From the second half of the XX century the world scientific com
munity focused on the analysis of the system of global problems of our time, as
the most important of them was considered the aggravation of tension in the bio
sphere in the process of expanding the activities of the global society. The discus
sions showed that the ecophobic essence of the world development model needs a ra
dical transformation aimed at a more active perception of modern socio ecological
and socio cultural stereotypes. This search turned into developments in the field
of the concept of sustainable development as an actual strategy for the positive
dynamics of civilization.
Conclusion. Over the past 30 years, the world scientific community has made
a lot of efforts not only to identify the origins of the contradiction between the re
lationship between man and his socio natural environment, but to formulate a conceptual
model for the development of civilization that ensures the stability of the global system “man—society—biosphere”.
The implementation of the mechanisms of
the sustainable development strategy is the key to the positive and steady progress
of civilization deep into the third millennium.
Key words: Rio 92, the concept of sustainable development, noosphere, the con-
ceptual apparatus of the theory of sustainable development, the “triad of sustainability“

Problems of International Relations, Global and Regional Development

Development of the Energy System of Modern China

Bogomolov Alexander I., Sekretareva Kseniia N.
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Introduction. With its strong potential, China claims to be one of the leaders
in the international hydrogen market. The goal of the Chinese hydrogen economy is
to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources and increase the level of the co
untry’s energy security. The main objective of this article is to analyse the state of
hydrogen energy in China at the present stage and identify the prospects of coope
ration with Russia in this area.
Materials and methods. The methodological basis of the research includes
the following methods: theoretical, (study of scientific works), analytical, statistical
(study of statistical data on various parameters), comparative analysis and method
of generalisation.
Results of the study. To achieve the stated goal, an analysis of Chinese energy
policy in recent years was carried out. It was determined that the main tasks of
the current stage are: comprehensive promotion of the development of hydrogen fuel
cells, hydrogen vehicles and hydrogen filling stations, as well as further raising
the status of hydrogen energy in the energy system; gradual improvement in the tech
nical performance of hydrogen energy, as well as the introduction of a plan to sub
sidize hydrogen vehicles.
Discussion. Russian Chinese cooperation in the field of hydrogen energy at
the present stage has not shown great results. China has obvious advantages in terms
of a deep understanding of the logic of the economic development of hydrogen en
ergy, the completeness of the production chain, accumulated experience and produc
tion technologies. For China, which is building ambitious plans for hydrogen con
sumption, which is difficult to provide with its own capacities, Russia could become
a reliable supplier.
Conclusion. At the present stage, the transition to alternative energy sources for
the PRC is a means to avoid energy risks. Hydrogen can help China in its ambitious
plans for decarbonization, for which it is necessary to strengthen and improve hyd
rogen energy standards, as well as expand international cooperation.
Key words: China, hydrogen energy, energy security, hydrogen fuel cells, Rus-
sian-Chinese cooperation, storage and transportation of hydrogen

The Principle of Subsidiarity of J. Althusius and Its Modern Interpretation

Bolshakov Sergey N.
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Introduction. The article analyzes the concept of subsidiarity. The article comp
letes the process of introducing subsidiarity, which emerges as a political and huma
nistic idea of organizing modern society.
Materials and methods. Based on the methodology of interdisciplinary studies
of international relations, the article assesses the evolution of the problem of sover
eignty for large supranational political entities.
Results of the study. The article presents the main features and symbiosis ob
served by J. Althusius, assigned to the level between the authorities of the study as
the order of the social organization of society. The relevance of the social and public
thought of Althusius in scientific debates about sovereignty in the European Union is
Discussion. On the rise of the process of building the unity of the European
Union, the implementation of the risks of using insulin in legitimizing the institu
tional conditions of the EU is analyzed. The concept of subsidiarity, as a Catholic so
cial recommendation, proclaimed by the head of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope
Pius IX, is the embodiment of the idea of Althusius, his philosophical heritage, which
rethought the ideas of Thomas Aquinas in a new way. The article analyzes the impor
tance of implementing the principle of subsidiarity in the modern practice of the po
litical governance of the European Union.
Conclusion. The subsidiary nature of the organization of management and
the construction of a special structure of modern European society presupposes
the independence, activity of lower levels of government, which at the same time
strengthens the process of building the entire management system of the European
Union. The Agreement concludes on the processes of federalization and the streng
thening of democratic participation in the unity of the EU countries.
Key words: subsidiarity, sovereignty, public administration, legitimacy, federalism

“Soft Power” of the Russian Federation in the Field of Higher Education (a Case Study of Armenia)

Matevosyan Anna T.
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Introduction. The article analyzes higher education as an important component
of the “soft power” of the Russian Federation, in particular, it pays attention to
the potential for the attractiveness of Russian education on the international arena.
The main tools for attracting students which are implemented by Russia are consi
dered on the case study of the Republic of Armenia.
Materials and methods. The data of the UNESCO Institutes for Statistics,
the Institute for International Education are used. The indicators of the Russian and
foreign universities are analyzed, educational programs in Russia and other states
(USA, Great Britain, Germany, Japan) in Armenia are compared. The comparative
and analytical methods are used in the research.
Results of the study. The key institutions and instruments of the “soft power”
of the Russian Federation in the field of higher education are identified, their acti
vities in Armenia are analyzed, strengths and weaknesses are revealed.
Discussion. The main directions that contribute to increasing competitiveness
of the Russian higher education have been identified.
Conclusion. The Russian “soft power” policy evaluation in the field of higher
education in Armenia is carried out, the need for the development of strategic coo
peration with the republic is revealed. The research results can be used in the analysis
of the “soft power” potential in other Transcaucasian countries and CIS.
Key words: “soft power”, higher education, Russia, Armenia, CIS.

National-state Models of the Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism

Mirzazyanov Ramil H.
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Introduction. The creation of a global counter terrorism “international” seems
unlikely. National models of counterterrorism and anti extremist counteraction
should be viewed as basic.
Materials and methods. We apply theory of constraints and use the method
of focusing diverse resources to solve a specific (counterterrorism) task.
Results of the study. We find two main possible scenarios for countering in
ternational extremism and terrorism. The first of them is the “Atlantic” scenario,
based on the unconditional leadership of the United States and NATO. The second
scenario can be defined as isolationist (autonomous). It presupposes isolation and
a kind of autarchy of states that are centers of terrorism, international and regional
terrorist organizations as objects of anti terrorist actions.
Discussion. The Atlantic scenario is incompatible with the autonomy and sove
reignty of Europe. In the autonomous scenario, the idea of a divided collective secu
rity is put forward. All this goes hand in hand with the containment of Russia and
China. At the same time, the pluralistic, polycentric (largely Eurasian) model of co
untering “terrorist extremism” looks the most adequate to modern realities.
Conclusion. It is necessary to create a coordination mechanism that provides
for strengthening the interaction between the SCO member states and the CSTO
as a factor in strengthening Eurasian security, countering terrorism and extremist
Key words: national)state model of struggle, neo)Atlanticism, isolationism, Eura-
sianism (pluralism)

Reflections and Comments

The Growth of Knowledge About Civilizations at the Intersection of Sciences

Aslanov Leonid A.
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Introduction. Important results are obtained at the intersection of individual
sciences. The doctrine of civilizations requires a search for relationships with history,
psychology, and with the theory of self organization, which has arisen and is devel
oping in the natural sciences.
Materials and methods. The method of comparison made it possible to obtain
new results in the doctrine of civilizations. Analysis and synthesis were also used.
Results of the study. Civilization consists of two parts: mentality and culture.
Mentality — is the basis of civilization, culture — is the “immune” system of civi
lization. Mentality is a collective instinct for self preservation, genetically inherited
from generation to generation. Culture consists of conditioned reflexes, which are
the result of an individual’s adaptation to the environment.
Discussion. A social system arose in Russia, organizationally similar to the army:
the head of state was the commander in chief, to whose will all people obeyed and
at whose disposal were all the resources of the state, i.e. everything is like in the army.
The North Sea civilization was formed in completely different conditions. Water bar
riers saved people from enemies, and A.Toynbee called this environmental factor
“the compensating effect of the environment”. The origin of the North Sea civiliza
tion took place on the marches of the North Sea.
Conclusion. The genesis of local civilizations turns out to be understandable
if we consider the ways of adapting ethnic groups to their environment, and taking
into account the fixation by the instinct of self preservation (mentality) of behavior
that allowed the ethnic group to be preserved (armed struggle against the enemy or
trade in the absence of enemies).
Key words: mentality, culture, Pavlovian and operant conditioning, self-preserva
tion instinct, brain, environment, self-organization theory