№ 3 • 2022 • JULY—SEPTEMBER

Editor-in-chief’s Word (№3 2022)

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Editor-in-chief’s word

Report of the President of the Moscow Society of Naturalists, Rector of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov Academician V.A. Sadovnichy at the General Meeting of MSN September 22, 2022

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Report of the President of the Moscow Society of Naturalists, Rector of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov Academician V.A. Sadovnichy at the General Meeting of MSN September 22, 2022

Theoretical and Historical Foundations of Sustainable Development

Rio-92: Preliminary Results of the 30th Anniversary of the Strategy Sustainable Development of Civilization (Part 2: Sustainable Development: From Theoretical Constructions to Practical Actions)

Los Victor A.
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Introduction. Within the framework of the UN Conference on Environment
and Development (Rio(92, June 1992), the foundations were laid for the concept of
sustainable development of civilization, which over the past 30 years has been imple-
mented to one degree or another in the vast majority of countries of the world com-
munity. Thus, SD(strategy became a reality of modernity, while revealing positive
trends in the middle of the 21st century.
Materials and methods. Data from both domestic and foreign scientific publi-
cations, publications of the UN and the Club of Rome were used. The study is based
on general scientific methods of logical analysis, comparison and generalization;
special attention is paid to the systematic approach.
Results of the study. The concept of sustainable development has reached the le-
vel of SD — a strategy of national(regional and global scale. The European “Green
Deal” is aimed at implementing the model of the Western European type of sustai-
nable development, which in general corresponds to the world’s conceptual views. Its
goal is to turn the EU into a highly efficient, resource(efficient and competitive
socio(economic and socio(cultural system.
The temporal dynamics of the position of the US administration in the percep-
tion and implementation of the forms and mechanisms of the sustainable develop-
ment strategy is revealed. The programs of “demographic leaders” of the 21st century
are evaluated. The contradictions and prospects for implementing the principles of
sustainable socio(economic and socio(cultural development in the specific condi-
tions of modern Russia are analyzed.
Discussion. The search for an answer to the fundamental question facing mo-
dern civilization (and science): is the SD(strategy real or is it a utopia: a desirable but
illusory goal setting of humanity? If the scientific community generally does not give
an unambiguous answer, then the state structures of many countries of the world
are already implementing programs aimed at a strategic balance of economic, en-
vironmental and socio(cultural processes. Of particular interest is the analysis of
the “degree of stability” the Russian Federation.
Conclusion. An analysis of the “thirty years of stability” of civilization shows
that within its framework the mechanisms of the dynamics of society are imple-
mented at all its levels the prolongation of which involves the construction of po-
sitive scenarios for the future. However, their realization depends on whether huma-nity manages to “slip” between Scylla of exacerbation of socio(political turbulence
and Charybdis of socio-political civilization.
Key words: Rio92, sustainable development strategy, features of the strategy of developed countries, ESGstandard, specifics of China’s sustainable development
program, model of the “new India”, specifics of the strategy of the Russian Federation

Problems of International Relations, Global and Regional Development

The Reconfiguration of Islamists Forces in Afghanistan and Its Implications for Global Security

Korotayev Andrey V., Issaev Leonid M., Askerov Mir Ali I.
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Introduction. For decades there have been many Islamist groups of varying levels
of radicality and activity on the territory of Afghanistan. The year 2021 was marked
by several very important events: the withdrawal of the American troops from the ter-
ritory of Afghanistan, the rise to power of the Taliban3 in August 2021 and the further
announcement of the creation of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. In this article
we examine how these events have affected the reconfiguration of those forces and
the implications for global security.
Materials and methods. For this purpose, we used data from news agencies and
the results of field research in Afghanistan (Kabul, 2019), Pakistan (Islamabad, 2019)
and Tajikistan (Dushanbe, 2022) to assess the views of the expert community and
government officials on the processes we are studying. The resource(actor approach
and critical discourse analysis were also used for the analysis.
Discussion. The following structures played a key role in the reconfiguration of
jihadist forces in Afghanistan: the Islamic State in Khorasan Province, the Tehrike
Taliban Pakistan, Al(Qaeda, and the Islamic Party of Turkistan 4 . In the case of Al-
Qaeda and the Islamic Party of Turkestan, there is certain stability in the low acti-
vity of these structures and their refusal to use Afghan territory to attack other co-
untries. This indicates that at this point the Taliban are able to maintain control over
these organizations, but there remains a risk of escalation, which could result in a loss
of control over the situation. In this scenario, the Taliban have almost no tools to res-
pond quickly to the new conditions and, as a consequence, there is a threat to a num-
ber of neighboring states. The activities of the Tehrik(e Taliban Pakistan are very li-
mited, as their goals do not extend beyond Pakistan. The Taliban in Afghanistan,
however, are trying to take the position of a key mediator between this organization
and the Pakistani government, which they have so far also succeeded at doing. This is
not the case with the Islamic State in Khorasan Province, which maintains its uncom-
promising approach, refuses to negotiate with anyone, and is the biggest threat to all
countries in the region.
Results of the study. The findings of the study include how Islamist extremism is
beginning to claim its own nation(building, as well as an assessment of the poten-
tial expansion of various political forces and the threat they pose to global security.
The nature of the Taliban’s interaction with each group has been examined in detail.
The question of possible cooperation or indirect assistance to the Taliban govern(
ment against the Islamic State in Khorasan province was also addressed.
Conclusion. At the moment Taliban does not pose a threat of military expan-
sion, as it is primarily interested in maintaining its power in Afghanistan and avoids
unnecessary confrontation with neighboring states. They are also not interested in
exporting their ideology outside of Afghanistan. However, the Islamic Emirate of
Afghanistan is home to organizations that represent global jihadist structures — most
notably Al(Qaeda and the Islamic State in Khorasan Province. Al(Qaeda has re(
peatedly conf irmed through its off icial and unoff icial media that it is obliged not
to use Afghan territory to attack other countries, in order not to cause another in-
vasion on its territory. However, the Islamic State in Khorasan Province is waging
a fierce fight the Taliban and has stated its goals of expanding its area of activity
to the Central Asian republics. In this regard, it is of interest to consider the issue of
cooperation or indirect assistance to the Taliban government in the fight against this
organization. This tactic has been used before and now seems very promising and
meets the interests of the war on global terrorism.
Key words: Afghanistan, Islamism, global terrorist threat, Taliban, ISIS, Central Asia

Main Approaches of the Chinese National School to the Study of the Theory of International Relations

Kochetkov Vladimir V.
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Introduction. The processes of globalization taking place in the modern world
increasingly require mechanisms for managing and coordinating actions to solve glo-
bal problems. At the same time, the existing institutions of global governance, such
as the UN, demonstrate insufficient effectiveness. This makes it relevant to search
for alternative ways of global governance, developed by scientists not only in Western
countries. Of special interest are the studies of Chinese scientists, since China today
is rapidly developing and claims to occupy a leading position in the world of the fu-
ture. Consideration of Chinese ideas about how the future world system should look
like is the subject of this article.
Materials and methods. The work used systematic, global and evolutionary ap-
proaches, as well as general scientific methods: analysis of domestic and foreign lite-
rature, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction.
Results of the study. Three theories have been developed in China that is much
more in line with the goals of sustainable human development than the prevailing
Western approaches today. The most famous and influential of these is the concept
of Tianxia (Celestial Empire) by Zhao Tingyang. Tianxia is a global system that be-
nefits all of its participants. In this, it fundamentally differs for the better from
the Western Westphalian international system based on the national interests of so-
vereign states. Yang Suetong’s theory of moral realism considers strategic trust, which
is won by stable interstate cooperation, as the main factor in international relations.
Qin Yaqing’s theory of relations argues that international relations are not a conf-
lict of opposites, but a harmonious interaction of the Yin(Yang type. In the begin-
ning, countries are in conflict, but then their values interact, enrich and pass into
each other.
Discussion. For almost its entire thousand(year history, China has been geo-
graphically, linguistically and culturally isolated from the rest of the world. China
first encountered values alien to it during the opium wars, during which it was de-
feated and realized the need to borrow advanced knowledge. In the course of several
“waves” of borrowing, China not only adopted Western ideas about international re-
lations, but also transformed them, introducing its own specifics. At present, China
offers the international community its own view of the future world order, combining
the teachings of ancient Chinese thinkers and modern Western theories of interna-
tional relations.
Conclusion. Globalization “with Chinese characteristics” will differ significant-
ly from its modern model, called “Westernization”. Today’s Westernization, and more
precisely Americanization, involves the transformation of all other countries along
the Western model. If a country refuses to accept Western values, it will face coup
attempts, violent change of political regimes, sanctions and enrollment in the cate-
gory of “rogue states”. The Chinese version of globalization assumes equal participa-
tion in the management of world affairs by all without exception, even small states.
Interacting, the cultures of different countries are not destroyed, but mutually adapt.
There are no excluded countries — absolutely everyone participates on an equal
footing in world affairs. The development of large countries is not carried out at
the expense of the rest, but on the contrary, it benefits everyone. Management is car-
ried out on the basis of the norms of morality and justice, which are based on fami-
ly values.
Key words: global world order, global governance, Chinese specif ics, Zhao Tin
gyang’s concept of Tianxia World Institute, Yang Suetong’s theory of moral realism,
Qin Yaqing’s relational theory of world politics.

Cryptocurrency as a New Tool in Global Governance

Mosakova Elizaveta A.
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Introduction. The leading global trend in the development of the modern world is
its digital transformation, one of the most striking manifestations of which is the ra
pid spread of cryptocurrencies. In matters of the expediency of the volume of regu
lation of cryptocurrencies, the positions of international organizations and national
governments differ significantly, which is explained by their revolutionary nature and
the dangers they pose for the financial system and the political world order.
Materials and methods. The methodological basis of the study is the general sci
entific methods of cognition: analysis, synthesis, comparison, induction and deduc
tion, abstraction, as well as the ascent from the abstract to the concrete and system
structural. In the process of working on the study, special research methods were also
used, such as: collection of scientific sources, collection of information, economic
and statistical analysis.
Results of the study. As a short(term prospect for the development of crypto-
currencies, it is advisable to strengthen the regulation of the crypto(market and form
a system of supranational crypto(regulation, and in the medium(term, the creation
of a radically new system of global governance based on crypto(currencies.
Discussion. The main trend in the development of the modern global crypto
market is the transition from a complete ban on cryptocurrencies to their full recog
nition and legalization. In the short and+ medium term, the number of cryptocurren
cies will only increase, which will inevitably lead to a crypto revolution in the global
governance system.
Conclusion. There are several concepts of global governance in modern political
science. However, while politicians and scientists are actively debating which concept
is more relevant, a crypto revolution is taking place that will contribute to changes
in the global governance system. Cryptocurrency, due to its essential characteristics,
such as anonymity and decentralization, can become the tool on the basis of which
a new global governance system will be built.
Key words: cryptocurrency, world currency, supranational regulation, cryptorevolution,
global governance, political world order, global f inancial architecture

Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the Role and Place of the State in Modern Geopolitics

Grebnev Ruslan D.
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Introduction. In the context of the Russian geopolitical turn and the aggravation
of international conflicts caused by the states struggle for the leading positions in
a multipolar world, the state aspects in the geopolitics theory study becomes of cur-
rent interest.
Materials and methods. General and special research methods, including the sys-
temic, historical, evolutionary and globalistic methodological approaches were used
when reviewing the paper. Dialectical, comparative, structure functional and other
methods of research were also applied.
Results of the study. The author substantiates the priority of the organicist ap-
proach to understanding the state, implying the geopolitical continuity of all politi-
cal entities with different political regimes that existed in a certain qualitative space
at different times and the existence of integral sovereignty. The article substantiates
the conclusion that the state policy has a positive prospect of implementation if it
corresponds to the geopolitical vector of the civilization living. The author assumes
the possibility to apply natural science methods to humanities.
Discussion. The article compares the founders of geopolitics and modern re(
searchers approaches of understanding the state and its ontological characteristics.
The “state as a living organism” concept priority over the “state as a mechanism of
governing” concept conclusion is made. The author proposes such a correlation be-
tween geopolitics and state policy as justified, where the geopolitical approach de-
termines the effectiveness of state political acts. In the text of the article, an attempt
is made to model the possibility to apply the methodology of physics and math or
natural science to the study of state.
Conclusions. Some aspects of the state, substantiated in the article, open
the prospect of further conceptualization of the multipolar world geopolitics ba-
sed on the recognition of the peoples’ right to cultural identity, development and
Key words: geopolitics, state, Eurasianism, neoEurasianism, Russian geopolitics,
organicism, cybernetics.