№ 2 • 2023 • APRIL—JUNE

Geopolitical Influence Centers in a Multipolar World: Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the Role and Status

Grebnev Ruslan D.
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The article presents the results of a study of theoretical and methodological aspects of the role and status of the center of geopolitical influence in the context of the formation of a two-level system of global governance in a multipolar world. The relevance of this study is justified by the proactivity of the key actors in the regionalization of global political processes associated with the formation of the poles of a multipolar world and the transition from a monocentric to a polycentric model of global governance. The main methodological approaches of this study are geopolitical, cybernetic, civilizational and organistic. When conducting the study, not related to the specified methodological approaches, but justified by the objectives of the study, general and special research methods were also used. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the systemforming factor in the formation of the pole of a multipolar world is the property of the middle ground and geopolitical subjectivity of the center of geopolitical influence. The structure of the pole of the multipolar world is determined by the ability of states to ensure the functional integrity of the regional system of international relations. The concept of multipolarity as an ideological superstructure of the globalization of political processes cannot be realized without the formation of a system of decentralized global governance based on the consensus of centers of geopolitical influence in a multipolar world. The study identified the following factors in the formation of global governance bodies in a multipolar world: the middle Pacific, the diversification of economic cooperation between centers of geopolitical influence, and the need for joint security by the poles of a multipolar world.
Key words: geopolitical influence center, global governance, multipolarity, globalization and regionalization of political processes, geopolitics, cybernetics, middle ground.

Analysis of the Federal Republic of Germany Within the NATO

Lomakin Artem S.
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The article analysis the activities of Germany’s national armed forces within the framework of NATO missions. These activities hold particular interest for the study of Germany’s growing autonomy on the world stage. Considering the current state of regional security, the focus of the article is on the contribution of the Bundeswehr and the politicomilitary leadership of the FRG to a number of missions in different regions of the world, which allows to consider Germany as a state that seeks to play a more active role in ensuring security in Europe. The geographic expansion of the Bundeswehr’s forces and capabilities as well as the intensity of the missions indicates increasing in autonomy of the Federal Republic of Germany on the international arena. Simultaneously with this growing independence, there is an increasing interest on the part of the German politico-military leadership to participate in the Alliance’s missions in Eastern Europe, where tensions are higher than ever before.
Key words: FRG, Bundeswehr, political-military leadership, NATO, EU, UN, military policy, political-military cooperation, special military operation, Ukraine, defense budget

New Aspects of Eurasian Integration (EAEU Experience)

Molchanova Natalia P.
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A successful example of the development of regional integration processes in the economic space of Eurasia is the functioning of the states within the EAEU. An analysis of the economic structure of the member countries leads to the conclusion about the priority role of industry and trade and economic relations in strengthening the position of the EAEU in the international arena. The necessity of the growth of macroeconomic indicators (volumes of production and services, foreign exports and mutual trade) and the activity of administrative-territorial entities in order to find reliable partners in the context of ongoing anti-Russian sanctions in order to strengthen interstate cooperation is substantiated. A more substantive application of the scientific tools of country studies to identify the prospects for the development of integration processes in the Eurasian space is proposed. Recommendations on the need for an in-depth study of individual countries, their natural resource characteristics, population distribution, economic potential and its most important elements have been formulated. Further regional scientific research should be focused on identifying resource opportunities and factors of territorial competitiveness in order to search for promising market niches, and on this basis, develop economic and financial regulation measures, create favorable conditions for economic activity and develop international cooperation.
Key words: Greater Eurasia, partnership, international division of labor, regional integration, total economic potential.

On the Issue of the Impact of the Consequences of the Pandemic on Socio-economic Processes

Pokrytan Pavel A, Xi Fuyuan
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The coronavirus pandemic, which began in 2020, was the largest phenomenon in terms of its scale in recent decades and had a global impact on all aspects of public life, including socio-economic processes. An assessment of the scale of the impact of the pandemic on the socio-economic processes in socialist China is the subject of this article. The article continues a two-year large-scale study of the problem of the impact of the consequences of a pandemic on socio-economic processes in countries with various forms of public economy. Socio-economic processes in the People’s Republic of China during the pandemic showed the opposite dynamics to the marketoriented countries of the European Union, the Russian Federation and the United States. This is determined by the conditions for the formation of these forms of production. The study showed that the consequences of the pandemic had a multi-vector impact on socio-economic processes in countries with various forms of public economy. If in market-oriented countries the pandemic in its movement leads to the same consequences as the general law of capitalist accumulation, compensating for the weakening of its action, then in a non-market-oriented country the pandemic did not have a noticeable impact on socio-economic development, determined by five-year plans. As a result of the study, it was shown that the socio-economic consequences of the pandemic in marketoriented countries led to a narrowed reproduction of the social product, while in the People’s Republic of China, the reproduction of the social product continued to be expanded.
Key words: pandemic, dynamics of indicators, socio-economic processes, market oriented countries, People’s Republic of China.

Russian-Chinese Relations in the Eurasian Space: Problems and Prospects for Cooperation

Yang Shuping
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The complexity of Russia-China relations in the Eurasian space prompts us to take a fresh look at these relations, using different angles to adequately understand the rapidly changing situation. The crucial task of maintaining an equal partnership between Russia and China as the balance of power changes often proves difficult. At present, it is impossible to fully describe Russian-Chinese interaction in the Eurasian space using only geopolitical concepts. The author uses the term “hedging”, which is borrowed from the financial-investment sphere, to solve the problems posed. Hedging in international relations is a strategy of building close relations with a strong partner while respecting its own interests and diversifying relations in order to prevent excessive dependence on it. This article analyzes Russia’s hedging against China’s behavior in the Eurasian space in three aspects: economics, security and the Eurasian integration concept. Geopolitical changes in the Eurasian space and inequality are the most important factors causing hedging between Russia and China. Russia hedges its risks vis-а-vis China in the pairing of the Eurasian Economic Union and the initiative “Belt and Road”, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the Eurasian integration initiative, which is characterized by increased collective bargaining power, diversified policies, and the search for alternatives. The consideration of Russia-China interaction from the perspective of hedging makes a definite contribution to the development of the theory of Russia-China relations. Nevertheless, this topic requires further research. Key words: Russian-Chinese relations, Eurasia, hedging, cooperation problems.