№ 3 • 2021 • JULY—SEPTEMBER

Теоретические проблемы глобалистики

Global Problems of the 20th Century in the Scientific Works of P.A. Sorokin

Golovko Eleonora P., Golovko Yulia V.
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Introduction. Multiple studies of most significant social phenomena undertaken by Pitirim A. Sorokin, let us treat the scientist as one of actual founders of globalism. Although the term “Globalization” has become commonly used after Sorokin’s life, his contribution is quite essential. The article’s objective is to demonstrate this statement.

Materials and methods. The study is built on analysis of the entire volume of Sorokin’s works throughout his long-term creative path. Global, systemic, historical, and evolutional approaches are used, as well as contextual and comparative analysis methods. Sorokin’s legacy is considered in both context of reflection upon dramatic events of his contemporary XX century and their comparison with previous epochs, as well as context of correlation with German and Russian philosophical traditions.

Results of the study. The study shows that Sorokin’s works have anticipated and, more likely, have become one of the basic components for contemporary globalism as an ideology concept. The main accent is made on comprehension of war and crisis that are the key problems which analysis and possible solutions let us see Sorokin as a globalist. Ethical and, at the same time, rationalistic attitude to war is outlined — it is obviously immoral as violence and cruelty in general, but also absurd and irrational in its essence. Being a founder of crisisology, Sorokin obviously adequately to contemporary views saw crisis as a global phenomenon. A special attention in this context should be paid to his prophetical ideas of forthcoming cultural interpenetration importance.

Discussion. Sorokin’s legacy is seen as being well demanded now. The article provides wide information regarding materials (including recently issued) dedicated to various aspects of works of the “sociologist number one”, his biography and influence on scientific and political thought, fulfilled and unfulfilled forecasts. Thematic Sorokin readings and other events take place on various sites, Sorokin foundation coordinates global research of the thinker’s ideas and works.

Conclusion. The authors hereof come to conclusion about so far sadly fulfilled scientific prophecies of Pitirim A. Sorokin. No doubt, globalization has lead to the new quality of today’s world that is tied with obvious pluses for a human being. However, for the whole humanity an epoch of active global self-conscience letting not only to be saved but transit to stable harmonic development, is yet to come.

Key words: globalization, revolution, war, social disorder, disintegration, crisis, sociocultural supersystem, value, revolution circle, polarization law, social illusionism law.

Modern global problems

Promotion of a Global Environmental Social Contract for the Sustainable Development of Humanity

Koshmarov Mikhail Yu., Manoilo Andrey V.
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Introduction. The article analyzes the main theses of the institutions of globalization about the population of the Earth over the past decade from the point of view of ideology and propaganda. The object of research of this work is the modern society. The subject of the research is the phenomena that arise in the emerging paradigm of sustainable development: new values, ideology and communication. The purpose of the study is to analyze and forecast the development of public institutions with a forecast horizon up to 2100.

Materials and methods. As the material for the analysis, the following methods are used: the report of the Royal Society of London 2012 “People and the Planet”, the report of the Club of Rome 2018 “Come On!”, the report of the Davos WEF 2020 “COVID-19. The Great Reset”. In this article, the research is carried out by historical, comparative and analytical methods. The collected analytical data is extrapolated to obtain forecasts within the stated horizon.
Results of the study. The study with a high degree of accuracy allows us to make a short- and medium-term forecast of the development of globalization; examines the bifurcation points in detail.

Discussion. Have been investigated the report “People and the Planet”, the report “Come On!”, and the report “COVID-19. The Great Reset”. The data from these reports are compared with other researches in this field. Previously, these reports have not been studied comparatively, which is a certain scientific novelty.

Conclusion. The results obtained allow us to speak about the formation of new values, ideology, and communication offered to the world by global institutions and the policy resulting from this new paradigm. The risks and prospects of the new paradigm for Russia are assessed.

Key words: environmental protection, environmental security, environmental propaganda, consumption, sustainable development, overpopulation, failure of neoliberalism

Elites Split in the United States — Contours of the New World Order

Poturukhin Viacheslav D.
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Introduction. The unipolar model of international relations is experiencing instability, intensified by the contradictions of the hegemon and the new centers of power. The hegemon is experiencing a split of the elite on issues of domestic and foreign policy, which allows us to talk about the end of the upward cycle of globalization and the disintegration trend, the need to build a multipolar model.

Materials and methods. The research methodology is based on general scientific research methods, such as analysis of Russian and foreign literature, comparison, inductive and deductive methods.

Discussion. Western globalism, while maintaining financial and political hegemony, weakens the real economic power of the United States, which expressed in the export of capital to states with cheap labor. American TNCs, whose production chains are located in Asia, being at the supranational level, have lost their state affiliation. This phenomenon has split the American elite into globalists (Democrats) and statesmen (Republicans), who are fighting for the preservation or dismantling of the Westphalian system of international relations.

Results of the study. The decisive role in the preservation of the Westphalian system played by the result of the confrontation between transnational and national elites.

Conclusion. World politics is characterized by the struggle of opposing systems — corporatist and statesmanlike. The beneficiaries of “Western” globalization and the concept of postmodern social theory are transnational corporations and banks due to the focus of this phenomenon on dismantling the institution of the state and strengthening corporatism. The interest of maintaining States as the main actors in international relations reflects national capital due to pressure from expansionist TNCs that monopolize the global market.

Key words: globalization, elites, corporatism, postmodernism, world politics, international relations.

Digitalization as Global Process: Socio-economic and Political Problems

Khotulev Alexandr S.
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Introduction. The genesis and evolution of digitalization as a global process is important for understanding the modern structure of global problems in the field of society, economics and politics, overcoming which is important for humanity to enter the trajectory of sustainable development. It is important to clarify how the socioeconomic component of the problem field of digitalization is related to the political one and what complex solutions should be for humanity in this regard.

Materials and methods. The work uses general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative analysis. The study of digitalization is based on a systematic approach that considers the processes and phenomena of digital development as an important part of the modern process of globalization.
Results of the study. Ensuring the development of the digital economy is realized due to the rapidly growing capabilities of technologies for working with big data, the creation of electronic applications and large digital platforms (digital economy — “platform economy” or “application economy”), providing automation and intellectualization of management, while owning data and control over digital processes, platforms become political actors, often on a global scale. In the political sphere, digitalization is reflected in a variety of phenomena that also have a problematic side, such as electronic (digital) democracy, digital diplomacy, as well as in the use of digital technologies to support political decision-making, for which in key countries for world politics (including in Russia), the network of situational centers is expanding.

Discussion. Socio-economic problems of digitalization are beginning to have an increasingly pronounced political projection. Among the politically projected socio-economic problems of digitalization, digital inequality, problems of cybersecurity and property rights to data, problems of a shortage of highly qualified personnel, with the mass replacement of labor of medium and low-skilled workers with robots and automatic machines, as well as the problem of accounting and analysis are leading in importance. ever faster growing arrays of received data, their quality. The positive meaning of digitalization, both in the socio-economic and political spheres, is the automated selection and analysis of the necessary information to improve the quality of management and human life. In the political sphere, digitalization of management requires an interdisciplinary approach and concentration of efforts on the intellectualization of management and interaction of states in order to enter the trajectory of sustainable development.

Conclusion. The problematic field of digitalization as a global social process seems to be complex, having both purely economic and socio-political aspects. It is advisable at the level of international institutions to pay the earliest attention to consolidate efforts towards overcoming this problem field through the coordinated intellectualization of management in all spheres, primarily in the political sphere.

Key words: digitalization, digital economy, sustainable development of digital platforms, platform economy, digital technologies, digital political communications, situational centers, political governance.

History of international relations

Regional Political Order in the Area of Soviet Interests in Eastern Asia (Part 2: “Beiyang Inheritance”)

Dudin Pavel N.
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Introduction. In the presented article (the second part of the work), the main attention is focused on the period following the change in foreign policy towards China and the departure from attempts to organize/facilitate the organization of the revolutionary movement in this country. The rhetoric inherent in the first years of the Soviet leaders, the direction of striving to convince the international community of the exceptional peaceful nature of the new government and the refusal to use both military and economic levers of pressure in foreign relations, was, of course, of a practical nature. In a number of cases, this brought the desired results, as in relation to Mongolia and Tuva, but did not work in relation to China. Thus, the article, based on the analysis of the content of diplomatic correspondence, attempts to show the change in tactics of Soviet Russia to ensure its interests in the Far Eastern direction and its results.

Materials and methods. The materials on the basis of which the scientific article was written, and the research methods have not changed and are similar to those used in the first part of our work.

Results of the study. As a result, the author proves the formulated premise that the “export” of socialist ideas to China has encountered objective difficulties that demanded a departure from a number of initial principles and focus on the priority tasks in relations with the republican authorities of our wayward neighbor, and above all — diplomatic recognition.

Discussion. Awareness of the need to change attitudes towards China and the effective measures taken for this, first made it possible to eliminate the threat from the representatives of the white movement, and then to achieve and restore diplomatic relations.

Conclusions. Diplomatic rhetoric varied from relations between “fraternal peoples” before 1920 to a strategic partner in the subsequent period, which ensured mutual recognition and the signing of an Agreement of General Principles for Settlement of Issues in 1924.

Key words: regional political order, East Asia, Soviet-Chinese relations, “export of revolution”, socialist ideology.

Specifics of the Island Empires Geopolitical Expansion

Komleva Natalia A.
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Introduction. This article examines the phenomenon of the island empire and the main forms of its geopolitical expansion on the example of the British and Japanese Empires. The definition of empire as a geopolitical phenomenon is given, and such types of empires as universal and partial are distinguished.

Materials and methods. Comparative and phenomenological methods of research are used.

Results of the study. The British and Japanese universal island empires differ both in technology and major actors, as well as in the consequences of imperial expansion.

Discussion. The island of Britain itself served as a springboard for the spread of the influence of the British Empire on the continents of Asia, Africa and North America, while for Japan, due to geographical features, it was necessary first to create a springboard on the Asian continent, and its expansion did not go further than Asia. The main actor in the imperial expansion of Britain was its economic corporations, and Japan — its regular army. Great Britain and Japan have lost the status of universal geographical empires, moving to the status of economic empires.

Conclusion. Having adopted modern Western forms of imperial expansion, Japan at the same time did not lose its civilizational identity, preserving in its cultural code the militaristic spirit that was generated by the geographical parameters of the Japanese islands and the island position of the Japanese ethnic group. The United Kingdom, having made Brexit and left the European Union, in this action, among other things, realized its “island” sense of separation from the continent, which had been suppressed for decades.

Key words: empire, island Empire, British Empire, Japanese Empire, geopolitical expansion.

События и рецензии

Review of the N.S. Rozov’s Monograph “Philosophy and Theory of History. Book 2: Causes, Dynamics, and Meaning of Revolutions”

Rusakov Vasiliy M., Rusakova Olga F.
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Аннотация. Вторая книга профессора Н.С. Розова «Философия и теория истории» посвящена широкому тематическому спектру проблем — от фундаментальных проблем социальной онтологии, через проблематику исторической динамики до попыток детального анализа отдельных кризисов и революций через скрупулезное эмпирическое исследование их событийного слоя. Заявленный автором круг задач и столь обширное проблемное поле, подлежащее анализу, впечатляют, как и перечень использованных отечественных и зарубежных источников. Однако куда большее внимание он приковывает целым рядом имплицитно содержащихся ответов на вызовы современности и «злобу дня». Рецензируемая работа продолжает исследовательскую линию профессора Н.С. Розова и выступает новым этапом развития его исследовательской программы, оснащенной новейшим инструментарием, находящимся в контексте самых современных методологических разработок, выдвинутых в последнее время. Автор ставит впечатляющую задачу применить в полном объеме этот весьма диверсифицированный инструментарий к фундаментальной проблематике социальных революций — к познанию причин, условий, следствий. Но несомненной заслугой автора следует считать предпринятую попытку раскрыть смысл революций — то, что еще пытались сделать великие русские философы В.И. Ленин, Н.А. Бердяев, П.А. Сорокин. Книга профессора Н.С. Розова, несомненно, пробуждает самое главное — методологический интерес.

Ключевые слова: методология исторического исследования, историческая социология, историософия, социальный порядок, социальная революция.