№ 2 • 2024 • APRIL—JUNE

Stages of Development of the Eurasian Economic Union: Lessons and Prospects

Molchanova Natalia P., Kokov Alikhan M.
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The relevance of the research topic is due to the controversial nature of the formation of international regional integration in the Eurasian space. The purpose of the study is to examine in historical retrospect the patterns of formation of the EAEU, identify priority directions for its development and activities to overcome the challenges facing member countries. The object of the study is a set of relations, during the formation of which various aspects of productive interstate cooperation arose and developed in the space of the former USSR: political, economic, cultural. The subject of the study is the prerequisites, principles and mechanisms of international regional integration in the Eurasian space in the context of global political processes (using the example of the EAEU). The chronological scope of the study covers the period from 1994 to the present. The work uses general scientific approaches (dialectical, historical, civilizational), methods of expert assessments, comparative and content analysis. When justifying the feasibility of using reliable legal conditions for activity, the principles of mutual trust and participation of the parties, as well as recognition of the national interests of partner countries, a special terminology was used. The presented topic requires further research due to the fact that the evolutionary developing international relations considered in the economic space of the EAEU are closely intertwined with the dynamically changing geopolitical situation, as a result of which their constant study is required on the basis of systemic analysis.
Key words: regional integration union, international relations, continental Eurasian partnership, geopolitics, friendly countries, macroeconomics.

Main Trends of Modern International Economic Relations in Conditions of Recession of the World Economic Order

Vasilyeva Nina I., Musieva Jamilya M.
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Today, it is natural to state the primary stage of the process of transformation of international economic relations in conditions of extreme aggravation of political and socio-economic relations. However, in the expert community there is no consensus on the essence of the transformation, its direction, goals and possible results. It is especially difficult to understand this issue in the context of the upcoming Russian Presidential elections in March 2024. Sociological services have noted in recent years an increase in anxiety among voters in the face of an uncertain future: first due to the coronavirus pandemic, then by the onset of the SMO, and since this autumn the Nagorno-Karabakh and Arab-Israeli conflicts . In the context of the post-pandemic recovery of the global economy, with its consequences essentially calling into question the use of the word “global,” the exacerbation of geopolitical tensions leads to an increase in the already observed fragmentation or deglobalization.
In view of this, the current conditions require careful reflection and the search for balanced solutions. Pessimistic forecasts for the growth of the world economy, given by international economic organizations and independent analytical agencies, are determined by a combination of factors, including a fall in consumer demand, inflation, an increase in government debt, etc. The processes of stagnation will be long-term and will lead to a fundamental transformation of the global financial and economic system. The transformation of the world political order simultaneously leads to changes in the system of international economic relations, creating fundamentally new realities leading to increased competition and contradictions between different states in various areas, the consequences of which have yet to be observed and analyzed.
Key words: dynamics of world economic development, deglobalization, multipolar order, global economic stagnation, economic sovereignty.

Evolution of India’s Political Elite in the British Raj Era and Post-colonial Period

Kornienko Olga Yu., Radionova Ekaterina A.
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Abstract. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze specific features of Indian political elites, taking into account peculiarities of Indian cultural and religious identity as well as the impact of the colonial past. Indian elites are now at the focus of academic interest mainly due to a new role of India in global environment. In fact, the changes in the role and status of Indian elites are usually traced to its colonial past when Indian princes played an important role in the political system of the region and ruled about 600 principalities. This research focuses on ways to assess the effectiveness of the British approach of indirect rule in India and to understand the way the Indian elite was integrated into the system of the British Crown. This article met these twin research aims through an extensive study of relevant literature and implementation of historical and institutional analyses, biographical analysis of India’s political elite is also engaged to understand their motives, values, and strategies.
The research produces a number of key fundings: it has confirmed the significant role of Hinduism, the caste system and the experience of the colonial past in shaping India’s modern political elite. Hinduism has retained its unifying religious and ideological influence on the identity and political role of the country. The caste system has created a distinctive style of political struggle and leadership based on dynasticism of the political elite. The colonial past has given India a new start thanks to its involvement into democratic realities of the modern world. The main conclusions drawn from the research are that modern Indian political elite has been formed on the cultural roots of Hinduism, still remains sensitive to the interests of various castes and is committed to national development based on the experiences and lessons of the colonial past.
Key words: indirect rule, British India, political elite, princely families, dynasticism, Hinduism, caste system, colonialism.

China’s Environmental Policy and Soft Power Potential

Matevosyan Anna Torgomovna
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The purpose of this article is to identify an interdependence between environmental policy and expansion of international influence, “soft power” of state. The evolution of the environmental agenda that led to the change of Beijing’s role in global politics has been analyzed.
The article examines China’s cooperation with the island countries of the Indo-Pacific region. Climate challenges faced to these countries facilitated the development of cooperation with Beijing. Chinese leaders offered support to overcome the consequences of climate change. The United States that had played a key role in supporting the island states in the fight against climate change temporarily withdrew from the Asia-Pacific Region during the Trump administration. This led to China’s position strengthening among the countries of the region. Beijing has succeeded in expanding its “soft influence” in a strategically important region for China through international eco-projects and active participation in addressing global problems.
The China’s case research reveals an interdependence between the development of the country’s environmental policy, international cooperation and the strengthening of the “soft power”. It’s forecast that China will strengthen its position among the Asia-Pacific countries and developing countries as a leader in environmental protection issues.
The article suggests that developing countries will further be engaging in the environmental agenda including India. Thus, the prospects for the use of eco-diplomacy as a strategic tool for achieving foreign policy goals and expanding “soft influence” is being underlined.
Key words: “soft power”, environmental policy, eco-diplomacy, global problems, climate change, China, Beijing, Indo-Pacific region.

The Study of Cultural Diplomacy as Part of the Cultural Strategies of the People’s Republic of China: Approaches of Various Experts

Romanova Ekaterina A.
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In the 21st century, culture is becoming a more important component in international relations, where cultural diplomacy is gradually turning into the most effective method of fighting in the international space. The aim of the work is to analyze the methodology, approaches and research of China’s cultural diplomacy by both European and Chinese experts. The main sources of information were the materials of Chinese and European researchers. Among them, attention was drawn to scientific monographs and articles by leading researchers in China and Europe. Historical and comparative analysis of available information is applied. States, individual regions are striving to implement various types of cultural exchange events, the level of which has reached an unprecedented level over the past ten years. In this regard, there are various methods and approaches to studying the cultural diplomacy of the PRC. Depending on the tasks set within the historical period, there are differences in the achieved scientific results. At present, profound changes are taking place in the world, culture is increasingly becoming an important factor in international competition, and the status and role of cultural diplomacy in the country’s foreign policy agenda are becoming increasingly important. The cultural policy of “soft power” carried out by the Chinese government in the process of intercultural exchanges is becoming an increasingly obvious tool for demonstrating China’s state power, and the development of cultural strategies that would mitigate the negative effects of globalization and the protection of traditional national culture have become the most important tasks in the strategic series of cultural development. China in the 21st century.
Key words: globalization, diplomacy, China, cultural diplomacy, methodology, cultural strategies, cultural exchange, new era.

“Technological Level”: Towards Operational Certainty of the Concept

Shorkin Aleksey D.
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The concept of “a level of technology” is recognized as the most important factor in the development of world-systems. Its widespread use contrasts paradoxically with the lack of generally accepted operational certainty. The purpose of the article is to construct an algorithm for the empirical quantification of technological levels.
Numerous attempts to create a system of technology level indicators have not led to easy-to-use results. Researchers of world dynamics prefer to consider the complex multiplicity of indicators using its individual evaluation markers. The level of technology is primarily produced by inventive activity. Its definition by considering the accumulation of the number of inventions has developed in the traditions of the Russian scientific community. This article develops this tradition. For the purposes of rigorous empirical quantification of the level, evaluation procedures were eliminated, and WIPO statistical data were used.
The accumulation of inventions and the growth of World per capita GDP show a high correlation. They are proportionally related by the coefficient of financial and economic productivity (h), the numerical value of which is $185±10 (according to PPP, 1990). A million inventions constitute a unit of technology level. By 1883, the technological level reached 5.25±0.28. Under normal economic development g = 1851±ω ∙ T, where ω ≤ 0.01. In pre-crisis times, ω drops to –0.05.
Two approbations of the author’s model are presented. In the first one, the correlation of the growth of the level of technology with the dynamics of the population is established, an approximation of the logistics of filling the demographic capacity of the modern technological platform is constructed. The second approbation establishes the correspondence of the value of the coefficient h, equal to the minimum World per capita GDP, with the diet of the archanthropus.
Hopefully, a simple operational interpretation of the technological level with help of the accumulated inventions (license counting) that is taken as an independent variable will expand the possibilities of building models of world dynamics.
Key words: level of technology, license for an invention, demographic capacity of a technological platform, diet of an archanthropus.

Reflections and Comments

Agrarian Reform in Kyrgyzstan

Bekbolot Talgarbekov
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Abstract: At the time of the declaration of independence of the state, Kyrgyzstan was in a difficult socio-economic and environmental situation, which led to a decrease in agricultural productivity. This situation is due to the fact that the collapse of the union caused a rupture in relations between the republicans, as a result of which the material and technical problems of the village were eliminated, which was absolutely necessary for the normal reproduction of food.
Key words: agrarian reform, Kyrgyzstan, USSR